RJAVS July 2018
 
 
 

 


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Hematological parameters and productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens as influenced by early heat shock program, sodium bicarbonate and/or vitamin C supplementation

Morsy, A. S.

Abstract The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of early heat shock program (EHSP) during growth period and supplementation of sodium bicarbonate and/or vitamin C during production period on physiological responses and productive performance of Montazah hens under heat stress conditions during egg production period. One hundred and fifty (one - day old) of female Golden Montazah chicks were randomly divided into five equal treatments (30 chicks each). The 1st treatment (T1) served as control; the chicks of 2nd (T2), 3rd (T3), 4th (T4) and 5th (T5) treatments were exposed to EHSP during growth period (40.0±1.0 °C for 4 hours from 12:00-16:00 for 3 successive days at 3 days, 4 weeks and 8 weeks of age). The 3rd treatment (T3) had 250 mg vitamin C/ kg diet during production period. The 4th treatment (T4) had 1.5 % sodium bicarbonate during production period. Finally, the 5th treatment (T5) had 250 mg vitamin C/ kg diet + 1.5 % sodium bicarbonate during production period. After the end of heat shock exposure all treatments was reared under natural conditions. During first 90 days of egg production, all treatments reared under naturally hot conditions (summer months). The results showed that there were significant (P< 0.05) increase in the mean values of egg weight, egg number, egg mass, feed conversion and egg shell thickness in the hens of T2, T3, T4 and T5 as compared to the hens in T1 (control group). Mortality rate decreased (P< 0.05) in the hens of T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to that in T1. Red blood cells count and packed cell volume were increased (P<0.05) in the hens of T2, T3 and T5 when compared to T1. Meanwhile, hemoglobin concentration was increased (P<0.05) in the hens of T5 as compared to T1 group. There were significantly increased in total protein and globulin in the hens of T5 as compared to the hens in T1. However, hens of T3, T4 and T5 showed increased (P<0.05) in total antioxidant capacity when compared to T1. On the other hand, hens of T2, T3, T4 and T5 showed significantly increased in glucose concentration as compared to the hens of T1. However, cholesterol concentration was decreased (P<0.05) in the hens of T3 and T5 compared to that in T1 and T2. Alanine transaminase, aspartic transaminase and creatinine concentrations were decrease (P<0.05) in the hens of T2, T3, T4 and T5 as compared to the hens in T1. Tri-iodothyronine (T3) hormone was increased (P<0.05) in the hens of T3 and T5 when compared to control group. There were no significant differences among T5, T4, T3 and T2 in T3 hormone. In opposite trend, corticosterone hormone was significantly decreased in the hens of T5 and T3 as compared to the hens of T1. In conclusion, applying early heat exposure program (EHEP) may enhance thermo-tolerance and acclimate birds to face severe heat stress during production period. So, it positively reflected in physiological responses and productive performance. In addition, supplement of acclimate laying hens during production period with vitamin C (250 mg/kg diet) and/or sodium bicarbonate (1.5 %) improved the immune responses of hens and can improve productive performance and egg shell thickness under heat stress conditions. However, the combined effect of EHEP in addition to sodium bicarbonate and/or vitamin C supplementation may produce positive synergistic interaction effects in the performance of heat –stressed birds.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-8 ] DOI: 10.22587/rjavs.2018.10.2.1

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Effect of zeolite (Clinoptilolite) as a salinity stress alleviator on semen quality and hemato- biochemical parameters of Montazah cocks under South Sinai conditions

Morsy, A. S.

Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the effects of zeolite (Clinoptiolite) on semen quality and hemato-biochemical parameters in addition to blood minerals and hormones profiles of Montazah cocks drank saline well water (3398 ppm total dissolved solids, TDS). A total number of 40 cocks (22- weeks old and body weight of 2053.7 g ± 25.4) were randomly divided into four equal groups (10 cocks / group). The 1st group (G1), cocks drank tap water (265 ppm TDS) with basal diet and served as a control one. The 2nd group (G2), cocks drank saline well water (3398 ppm TDS) with basal diet. The 3rd group (G3), cocks drank saline well water with basal diet + 2 % of zeolite. The 4th group (G4), cocks drank saline well water with basal diet + 4 % of zeolite. The obtained results showed that, as expected semen characteristics were negatively affected (P<0.05) in cocks drank saline well water (G2) compared to the cocks of control group (G1). Meanwhile, cocks of G3 and G4 showed increases (P<0.05) in sperm concentration and motility compared to the cocks of G2. Moreover, dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and hydrogen ion (pH) decreased (P<0.05) in the cocks of G3 and G4 when compared to the cocks of G2. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed among the cocks of G3, G4 and G1 in semen quality parameters. On the other hand, red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration were higher (P<0.05) in cocks of G3 compared to cocks of G2. However, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular volume increased (P<0.05) in the cocks of G2 compared to the cocks of G1. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly in the cocks of G2 compared to the cocks of G1 and G3. Nevertheless, no significant differences were observed between the cocks of G3 and G1 in all hematological parameters. Cocks of G2 showed decreases (P<0.05) in total protein, globulin and glucose concentrations compared to the cocks of G1, G3 and G4. Likewise, total antioxidant capacity increased (P<0.05) in the cocks of G4 and G1 as compared to the cocks of G2. Cholesterol concentration decreased (P<0.05) in the cocks of G2 compared to the cocks of G1. However, cholesterol concentration increased insignificantly in the cocks fed zeolite (G3 and G4) as compared to the cocks of G2. Alanine, aspartic transaminases and creatinine levels increased (P<0.05) in the cocks of G2 compared to the cocks in other groups. However, there were no significant differences among cocks of G3 and G4 and G1 in biochemical traits. Cocks of G3 and G4 showed increased (P<0.05) testosterone and aldosterone hormones levels compared to the cocks of G2. Cocks of G2 showed increases (P<0.05) in calcium and sodium concentrations compared to the cocks of other groups. In contrary, phosphorus and potassium concentrations showed a reverse trend. On the other hand, the results of blood mineral parameters showed no significant differences among the cocks of G1, G3 and G4. It can be concluded that, under desert conditions, drinking saline well water (3398 ppm total dissolved solids) had negative effects on semen quality, blood constituents and electrolyte of Montazah cocks. On the other hand, addition of zeolite (Clinoptilolite) to cock diets at levels of 2 % or 4 % might lessen the deleterious effects of saline stress on the physiological performance through controlling the changes might occur in semen quality and hormonal profile in addition to improving the hematological and minerals reactions aroused from drinking saline well water.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 9-17 ] DOI: 10.22587/rjavs.2018.10.2.2

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Productive performance of Barki ewes fed halophytes added with Propionibacteria freudenreichii under saline conditions

Helal, H.G., Abo Bakr, S., Eid, E.Y. and El Shaer H.M.

Abstract This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding halophytes mixture (Atriplex nummularia and Pennisetum glaucum) and Propionibacteria freudenreichii (P169) supplements of Barki ewes rations on digestibility, nutritive values, milk yield and composition and growth performance of their lambs. Twelve mature Barki rams were randomly assigned to 3 experimental diets (4 animals each) for digestibility trials. For lactation trials, thirty-three Barki ewes were randomly distributed into three equal groups (11 animals each). The first group was fed on berseem hay and concentrate feed mixture (control group), the second group was fed ad libitum on mixture contained 25% Atriplex nummularia and 25% Pennisetum glaucum with concentrate feed mixture (G1), while the third group was fed the second group diet+1gm P169 (G2). A result of dry matter intake (DMI) was not has significant differences between all groups. Digestibility of CP was significantly (P<0.05) improved for rams fed halophytes mixture with P169 (G2) compared with other groups, but rams fed control diet showed the highest (P<0.01) values of DM, OM, NDF, ADF and DE compared to treated groups. Total digestible nutrients (TDN%) showed higher and significant (P≤0.05) values for rams fed G2 than (G1), while the highest values were detected for control group. Rams fed G2 and control group had highest (P≤0.05) digested nitrogen and nitrogen balance compared to those of the G1. No significant differences were noted between tested groups for rumen parameters and body weight changes. The overall mean percentages of lactose, total solids (TS), solid not fat (SNF) and ash content were significantly (p<0.05) increase with ewes fed G2 than control group, while milk yield and 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) were not affected. Also, economical feed efficiency showed the highest values with ewes fed G2 diet compared to control group. The findings of the present study showed increased (p<0.05) average daily gain for control group followed by G2 and G1. Birth and weaning weights were not have significant differences between groups. It could be concluded that feeding halophytes mixture with Propionibacteria freudenreichii supplements (P169) of Barki ewes improved productive performance, economical efficiency and decrease feed cost with no deleterious effects on their health under South Sinai conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-27 ] DOI: 10.22587/rjavs.2018.10.2.3

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Studies on the skin and wool fibres of Barki sheep fed on protected lysine and methionine

Naglaa. S. Badawy and W. A. Ramadan

Abstract Twenty-four adult Barki ewes (non-pregnant) aged 3-4 years with an average body weight of 28.95±1.37 kg was used in the study at Maryout Research Station, Desert Research Center. The present work was designed to evaluate the effect of feeding rumen protected amino acids, methionine or/and lysine on some wool follicle structures, skin amino acids as well as the wool fibres changes of Barki ewes. The study was carried out from September 2016 to February 2017. The histological study of the wool follicle in the skin of Barki ewes revealed that, it consisted mainly of outer and inner root sheaths. The increased values of the external diameter and the wall thickness of both primary and secondary wool follicles resulted in from the mixture have an ascending higher value in the lysine group followed by methionine which exhibited the greatest value while the internal diameter recorded a noticeable decrease in the methionine group followed by the other two groups. Histochemically, the general proteins were more abundant in the outer root sheath than in the inner root sheath of both primary and secondary wool follicles. In addition, all the experimental groups were exceeded the control group in the contents of general proteins especially in the methionine group which recorded the greatest amount of the proteins followed by the lysine group. The determination of the amino acid in the skin samples showed that, the addition of rumen protected amino acids (methionine or/and lysine) to the sheep nutrition recorded a variable increase in the content of some essential and non-essential amino acids in the skin of the experimental groups rather than the control group. The methionine group exhibited a significant increase in the content of all amino acids followed by the lysine group. The wool fibres produced from both primary and secondary wool follicles recorded an increase in their diameters rather than the control group especially in methionine group which recorded a significant increase in the fibre cross sectional area, fibre volume, fibre length growth rate, clean wool production, medulla thickness and the percentage of kemp fibres. Also, it recorded a significant decrease in crimp frequency and the percentage of the fine fibres rather than the control group.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 28-37 ] DOI: 10.22587/rjavs.2018.10.2.4

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