AEJSA Volume 13, Number 2: April-June, 2019


Factors Affecting Profit Analysis of Small-Scale Beef Cattle Farmers in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Ferdian Achmad, Jangkung Handoyo Mulyo, Masyhuri, Subejo

ABSTRACT Smallholder farmers mostly maintain small-scale fattening beef cattle farms in Indonesia. The ownership system of beef cattle in smallholder farmers consists of the self-ownership system and the partnership system. This research study aims to analyze the factors that were affecting the profit of small-scale of the beef cattle farmers in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The research study conducted at 4 (four) regencies in Special Region of Yogyakarta, those are Gunung Kidul Regency, Bantul Regency, Kulonprogo Regency, and Sleman Regency, purposively. Respondents that became the sample of this research study were 240 persons, consisting of 120 self-ownership farmers and 120 partnership farmers fattening type; selecting the samples using the Quota Sampling method. Data were analyzed using Unit Output Price (UOP) Cobb Douglas Profit Function. The results showed that the profit of small-scale of beef cattle farmers with self-ownership systems in Special Region of Yogyakarta was higher than the beef cattle farmers with partnership system. Factors that influenced the profit of small-scale beef cattle farmers negatively included depreciation cost of barn and equipment, the price of calves (fattening cattle), the price of forage feed, price of concentrate feed, and wage labor. The added value of the five variables tends to reduce the profits obtained by the farmers. While the factors that influenced positively were the variable of the amount of beef cattle production, type of beef cattle, and cattle ownership system, the addition of the number and fulfillment of the three variables would increase the profit of beef cattle farmers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-12 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.1


Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Greenhouses and Affecting Driving Factors in Al-Batinah South, Oman, Using GIS Mapping

Asma M. Al-Maimani, Abdulrahim M. Al-Ismaili, Ali K. Al-Maktoumi and Yassine Charabi

ABSTRACT Geographic Information System (GIS) tools have been utilized in greenhouse cropping systems for detection, identifying, and mapping. This study aimed to study the spatiotemporal distribution of greenhouses (GHs) and the driving factors affecting this distribution in Al-Batinah South, Oman using GIS Mapping. First, a field survey was conducted between July and December 2017 to all farms with greenhouses (GH farms) in the study area. Second, the required digital and non-digital data were collected from different sources. Third, for 2017, the recorded geographic coordinates of GHs and GH farms were mapped, while the aerial photographs for 2008 using ArcMap 10.1 were used to study the spatial and temporal distribution of GH farms and GHs. Fourth, four main driving factors were selected: distance to various market-outlets, distance to roads, distance to coastline and effects of groundwater quality to observe their significance on the spatial distribution of GH farms in 2017 using simple regression analysis. Fifth, the most driving factors explaining the variance of GH farms spatial distribution in 2017 were extracted using Principle Component Analysis (PCA). The results revealed that, for 2017, the distribution of greenhouse farms varied insignificantly (p>0.05) among the six cities in Al-Batinah South, where 71% and 53% of greenhouses and greenhouse farms were concentrated only in Barka coastal city. For the period 2008-2017, the density of greenhouse farms and greenhouses were shifting towards the inland cities such as Nakhal, Al-Rustaq, and Awabi. Within the same period, there was an average reduction of several greenhouses and greenhouse farms by 16.2 and 2.2, respectively. The total land area occupied by greenhouses shrank by an average of 0.56 ha/year in the same period. Results displayed that only one of the four main driving factors had a statistically significant influence (p<0.05) on the spatial distribution of greenhouse farms in 2017, which was the distance to roads. The most affecting driving factors on this distribution was the distance to local markets and the distance to Al-Mawaleh Central market by accounting for 44.2% and 23.8% of the total variance, respectively. In conclusion, Over the period 2008-2017, there was an overall reduction in the average number of GH farms and GHs due to land use changes, high construction costs (capital cost), high production costs, fuel cost, pests and diseases, water scarcity (in some places), competition due to foreign produce and from high tech domestic, low subsidy by Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and/or price fluctuations of fresh produce. The influence of distance to the highway and distance to the nearest paved roads were found significant driving factors (p<0.05). Based on PCA analysis, distance to local markets, and distance to Al-Mawaleh Central market were the two driving factors describing the total variance of GH farms spatial distribution. It is recommended, for future expansion of greenhouse farms, to consider inland areas with low groundwater salinity and to consider other driving factors such as soil parameters and distance to urban settlements for their potential significance on the spatial distribution of GHs and GH farms. This study will help decision-makers in future development and planning of GH agribusiness.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 13-33 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.2


Antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated from minced meat in eastern Morocco

Kamal Belhaj; Mohammed Khamri; Abdelouadoud Omari; Islam Abbadi; Chaouki Belbachir and Ahmed Elamrani

ABSTRACT Currently, antibiotic resistance poses a serious threat as far as both animal and human therapies are concerned, and the monitoring of this problem plays an important role in sustainable development. It can affect anyone, anywhere. The aim of this is to evaluate the risk of microbial resistant to pathogenic bacteria isolated from ground meat marketed in the eastern region of Morocco. The enumeration of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella spp. were carried out using ISO 6888-2, ISO16649-2 and ISO 6579 methods respectively. Indeed, the study of antibiotic resistance was carried out using the Mueller-Hinton medium according to the method described by French society of microbiology. A total of 51 samples of ground meat collected in eastern Moroccan butchers throughout March-April 2015-2017, were used to study the health risks of antibiotic resistance, 34 photogenic bacteria belonging to the following species Escherichia coli, salmonella and S. aureus were isolated. The antibiogram results showed that 100% of tested E. coli and salmonella strains are highly resistant to penicillin A, Nitrofurantoin, Erythromycin, Thiamphenicol, and Tetracycline. However, they are susceptible to Gentamicin and Colistin, and 100 % of E. coli and S. aureus strains are susceptible to Co-trimoxazole. All tested bacterial strains (E. coli, Salmonella, and S. aureus) are susceptible to Gentamicin and have medium resistance to Streptomycin. These strong bacterial resistances largely explain the excessive and unsustainable uses of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine, which calls for surveillance and vigilance against this global problem.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 34-40 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.3


The Effects of Plant Spacing, Rhizobium japonicum Inoculations and Main Stem Tip Pruning on Soybean Productivity and the Soil Quality in Intercropping with Kayu Putih

Irfa, Priyono Suryanto, Sumardi, Eka Tarwaca Susila Putra

ABSTRACT Kayu Putih is one of the essential types of non-timber forest products in Indonesia. The planting space betweenKayu Putih has the potential to the annual crop cultivation; one of them is the soybean. The soybean problem intercropped with Kayu Putih has low productivity. This study aimed to know the effects of the plant spacing, Rhizobium japonicum inoculations, and main stem tip pruning on soybean. The experiment was conducted during January-April 2015 in Menggoran Forest Resort, Playen District, Gunung Kidul Regency, Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The experimental design used the Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with three blocks as replications. The first factor was plant spacing consisting of 50 x 20 cm, 70 x 90 cm, and 90 x 20 cm. The second factor was the R. japonicum inoculations without inoculations and with inoculations. The third factor was the main stem tip pruning on soybean without main stem tip pruning and with main stem tip pruning. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA α 5% and continued with DMRT test α 5%. The results showed no interaction between plant spacing, R. japonicum inoculations, and central steam tip pruning on soybean. Plant spacing of 90 x 20 cm was revealed as the highest value of seed weight per hectare (0.81 tons. ha-1) compared to the 70 x 20 cm and 50 x 20 cm spacing. R. japonicum inoculations showed a higher value of seed weight per hectare (0.68 tons. ha-1) than inoculations without R. japonicum did. Meanwhile, main stem tip pruning on soybean had no significant difference on seed weight per hectare of soybean; there was an improvement in the soil quality properties at the end of the research on the soybean intercropping with Kayu Putih.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 41-47 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.4


Effectiveness of Irrigation Water Distribution System in Enhancing Rice Cropping Index at Subak Padanggalak, Kedewatan Irrigation Area, Bali

Ratna Komala Dewi, Nyoman Parining, I Wayan Widyantara

ABSTRACT One way that can be done to increase rice production is the expansion of the harvest area by increasing the rice crop index. Irrigation water supply at certain times is increasingly scarce so that proper management of irrigation water by subak is needed to increase agricultural productivity. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of irrigation water distribution systems in Subak Padanggalak, under the Kedewatan Irrigation Area, Bali. The effectiveness parameter of the water distribution system was specified by using the percentage of area covered from water distribution in Subak Padanggalak throughout the year. The results of the analysis show that the water distribution system is useful as it was able to irrigate the all-area Subak Padanggalak throughout the year adequately. The existing rice cropping index is 250%, and the potential index of food crops is 300%.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 48-54 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.5


Volatility Of Rice Prices In South Sulawesi

Jumriani Dambe, Didi Rukmana, Mahyuddin, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin

ABSTRACT: The demand for rice in Indonesia is increasing every year along with the increasing population growth which makes the gap bigger between production and consumption. The gap often results in volatility in rice prices from both the producers and consumers. The rise and fall of rice prices, associated with fluctuations in rice production that occur in the region producing rice suppliers, one of which is due to differences in crop patterns. An increase in volatility in food prices will be a concern for producers and other related actors in the food commodity chain that are related to the expenditure they will make. This study aims to analyze rice price volatility between time and between regions in South Sulawesi. The data used in this study is Secondary data in the form of Time Series data. Analysis The price volatility of rice in South Sulawesi uses the coefficient of variation formula. The results of the study of Sulawesi-south rice price volatility move above the standard coefficient of variation based on the target of the Indonesian Ministry of Trade where the coefficient of variation in rice prices between times is in the range of <9%. The coefficient of variation between regions where rice price volatility is quite stable moves below the standard <14.2%.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 55-60 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.6


The Influence Of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Innovation And Marketing Strategies To Competitiveness Of Food Sector Msmes In Makassar

Revy Alviany, Mahyuddin, Musran Munizu, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Rezky Ariany Aras

ABSTRACT: This research aimed to analyze the influence of orientation, innovation and marketing strategies on competitiveness of food sector MSMEs in Makassar, South Sulawesi. This research was conducted in February - April 2019, with the number of respondents 80 entrepreneurs food sector. The data analysis used a quantitative approach is Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) using SmartPLS 3.0. This research shows that entrepreneurial orientation, innovation, and marketing strategy has a positive and significant impact on MSME’s competitiveness with 0.05 level of significance because the p-value for entrepreneurial orientation was lower than 0.05, precisely 0.003 with a coefficient of 0.243. In innovations, the p-value was 0.001 < 0.05, which means that innovation has a positive and significant effect on competitiveness with a coefficient value of 0.332. The marketing strategy also has a positive and significant impact on competitiveness with 0.05 level of significance, with a p-value of 0.004 that was even lower than 0.05, and a coefficient of 0.295 which means for every one percent increase in marketing strategy will improve competitiveness by 29.5 percent.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 61-67 ] 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.7


Perception and Motivation and Its Effect on the Farmers Decision to Conduct Beef Cattle Business Partnership System (Teseng)

ST. Rohani, AR Siregar, TG Rasyid, M Aminawar, M Darwis

ABSTRACT: Beef cattle business management through the teseng system must be well perceived by farmers so that they are motivated to carry out beef cattle business so that it can influence the decision of farmers to carry out business cooperation through the teseng system. This study aims to: (1) describe the perceptions of beef cattle farmers on the teseng system; (2) describe the motivation of beef cattle farmers to the teseng system; and (3) analyze the effect of perception and motivation on the decision of farmers to conduct beef cattle business partnership (teseng) in Bone Regency. This research uses descriptive and explanatory research types. The sampling technique was carried out by simple random sampling of 150 farmers consisting of 90 people who did the teseng system and 60 people who did not do the teseng system in Patimpeng, Kahu and Libureng Districts. Data collection was carried out through interviews and focus group discussions which were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The results showed that: (1) variable perception of farmers against the test system consisting of sub variables: (a) economic benefits, (b) technical advantage, (c) the application of the teseng system is easier, (d) the level of conformity with the local community is in the good category; (2) farmer motivation variables on the teseng system which consists of sub-variables: (a) family economic demands, (b) limited business capital, (c) requests of friends/close relatives, (d) improve social status, (e) there is free time, (f) the chance of getting greater results, (g) additional income, (h) accept the trust and responsibility of raising cows in the good category; and (3) perceptions and motivations have a significant effect on the decision of farmers to do the teseng system.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 68-76 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.8


Adoption Level of Complete Feed Technology And Institution of Goat Farmers Group

Tanri Giling Rasyid, Amrullah, Muhammad Aminawar, ST. Rohani, Muhammad Darwis

ABSTRACT: Goat livestock in Jeneponto Regency is one of the livestock species that are in high demand by the community and is one of the leading commodities, but the cultivation results from year to year have not shown a significant development due to the problems faced by farmers are limited feed and the role of farmer group organizations. The solution to overcome these problems is by formulating a complete feed from agricultural waste and strengthening institutional farmers through coaching. This study aims (1) to determine the level of adoption of comprehensive feed technology and (2) to determine the institutional group of goat farmers in Jeneponto Regency. The method used is descriptive research. From 11 districts in Jeneponto Regency, 3 districts were selected which had the largest goat population, Tamalatea District (34,828 tails), Bangkala West District (23,274 tails), and Bontoramba District (20,713 tails). Research samples from these 3 districts selected 25 people so that all of them were selected by 75 goat farmers. The sampling technique is simple random. Data collection was conducted through interviews, focus group discussions and using a Likert scale on every aspect measured, namely 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = high and analyzed descriptively statistically. The results showed that (1) the level of adoption of goat farmers on complete feed technology was in the high category namely availability of raw materials and complete feed fermentation, in the medium category namely mixing complete feed ingredients, while the low category was the availability of complete feed fermentation sites, and (2) evaluation of goat farmers on group institutions based on aspects of natural resources, aspects of human resources, aspects of financial resources, group organization, and group norms are in the high category.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 77-84 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.9


Level of Adoption of Cow Cut Insemination Implementation UPSUS SIWAB In Soppeng District

Andi Syastiawan, Ahmad Ramdhan, Sitti Nurani

ABSTRACT: The background of the government's efforts to increase the production and productivity of beef cattle, therefore the government (Ministry of Agriculture) issued a policy to encourage accelerated increase in production for meat availability, through the implementation of SIWAB UPSUS that farmers are expected to be able to quickly adopt these activities. The SIWAB UPSUS consists of artificial insemination and INKA (natural mating). on the implementation of UPSUS SIWAB Artificial Insemination in the regency soppeng the birth data is not in line with the government's expectations, therefore the adoption of the SIWAB Artificial UPSUS Insemination study was conducted as an important indicator of the successful birth of the SIWAB UPSUS implementation. Purposing research is knowing the ability to adoption UPSUS SIWAB in Soppeng District. The population used is all beef cattle that participate in the UPSUS SIWAB program in Soppeng Regency. Respondent samples in identifying farmer adoption in the SIWAB UPSUS Artificial Insemination program involved 30 farmers who conducted UPSUS SIWAB Artificial Insemination in Liliriaja sub-district for direct interviews with a purposive sampling system. The writing of this thesis uses quantitative methods. Research Results overall adoption rate of farmers to UPSUS SIWAB Artificial Insemination program in Liliriaja sub-district Soppeng district, with variable indicators of time needed by farmers adopting UPSUS SIWAB artificial insemination, benefits and quality of SIWAB UPSUS Insemination program and the range of application of Artificial Insemination to produce class interval weights 166 points and are in the medium category.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 85-91 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.10


Analysis of Social Capital to the Local-Striped Buffalo Marketing in Indigenous Tribe of Toraja

A.Erna Mustafa, Arman Reeng, St.Nurani Sirajuddin, Nurdwiana Sari Saudi

ABSTRACT: This study examined the role of social capital in the marketing of local buffalo (tedong bonga) in the indigenous Toraja tribe, held from April to June of 2018 at the Bolu Animal Market in North Toraja Regency. The aimed of the study was to determine the role of elements of social capital (norms/customs, beliefs and networks) in marketing buffalo cattle in North Toraja Regency. The research methodology used was purposive sampling method, which is deliberate sampling according to the required criteria, namely all breeders and traders who sell tedong bonga, which are found in the market as many as 21 respondents. This type of research uses quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data is calculated using the Likert scale to see the level of social capital towards marketing tedong bonga while qualitative information is used to describe the role of elements of social capital towards marketing tedong bonga. The results showed that in the norm variable, the dominant indicator was rules, sanctions, and behavior, in the trust variable, the dominant indicator was honesty and fairness, while in the social network variable, the dominant indicator was social concern and cooperation. The total overall value shows the level of social capital greatly influences the marketing of tedong bonga. Based on these results the recommendations that can be given are that local governments can manage social capital as a social and cultural asset to improve the lives of Toraja people in particular and the development of Toraja regions through the livestock and tourism sectors in general.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 92-99 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2019.13.2.11


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