AEJSA Volume 12, Number 4: October-December, 2018


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Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates and Plant Densities on Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) yield and Quality under Arid Land Conditions

Mohammad Garallah Albogami, Fathy S. El-Nakhlawy and Samir G. Al-Solaimani

ABSTRACT: This investigation was carried out at the Agriculture Research Station, King Abdul-Aziz University at Hada AL-Sham, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during 2016/2017 and 2018/2018 seasons. Four nitrogen fertilizer rates (46, 92, 138and 184 kg N/ha) and three plant densities (250,000, 125,000 and 83,333plants/ha) were applied and tested on safflower seed yield, yield components and quality in a split plot design. The obtained results showed that as nitrogen fertilizer rate increased up to 138 kg N/ha safflower seed yield and yield components significantly increased. No significantly difference was found between 138 kg N/ha and 184 kg n/ha in seed yield/ha. Plant density of 83,333 plants / ha was the highest in seed yield/ha, yield components, protein and oil contents of seeds compared with 250,000 plants/ha and 125,000 plants/ha. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer rate significantly increased protein content and decreased oil content of safflower seed.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-6 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2018.12.4.1

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Control of Sugarcane Shield Population (Aulacaspis tegalensis) Using Sugarcane Superior and Resistant Pest Varieties

Sudi Pramono, FX. Wagiman, Y. Andi Trisyono & Witjaksono

ABSTRACT: The research on controlling sugarcane shield population (Aulacaspis tegalensis) using superior and pest resistant sugarcane varieties was carried out in the experimental garden of the Research and Development Division of PT Gunung Madu Plantations, Gunung Batin, Central Lampung, Indonesia during April 2015 – March 2016. The experiment used a complete randomized block design (RCBD) single factor, namely sugarcane RGM 99,370, RGM 97.8837 clones, GMP 1 GMP 2, GMP 3 and GMP 4 varieties, as treatment with four replications. Sugarcane shield observation (Aulacaspis tegalensis) was carried out starting from 4 months to 12 months old plants with a 15 day observation interval. The parameters of observation are the level of attack and the population of sugarcane shield. The data obtained were analyzed by linear regression and analysis of variance. The results showed that all clones and varieties planted were attacked by sugarcane shield with varying populations and intensity of attacks. The age of sugar cane, clones and sugarcane varieties has a significant effect on the level of sugarcane shield attack. GMP 3 and GMP 4 varieties are less preferred varieties of sugarcane shield compared to clones of RGM 99,370, RGM 97.8837, varieties of GMP 1 and GMP 2. The level of sugarcane shield attack of sugarcane variety GMP 3 and GMP 4 is relatively low, namely 16.11% and 18.90%. The development of sugarcane shield populations that attack is also low, on average 190.3 tails/stem and 179 tails / stem. GMP 3 and GMP 4 varieties are tolerant and resistant to sugar cane shield attack, showing no signs and symptoms of attack. The productivity of these two varieties is also very high at 119 tons / ha.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 7-13 ]
DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2018.12.4.2

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Genome Instability of Four Cucumber Cultivars Grown at Three Different Atmospheric Locations as Identified by RAPD Markers

Magdi A.A. Mousa, Adel D. Al-Qurashi and Amed A.S. Bakhashwain

ABSTRACT: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate genetic stability of cucumber plants of four genetically distinct cultivars grown at three different climatic locations of Saudi Arabia. The genome stability of cucumber cultivars was evaluated in early growth, vegetable, flowering, and fruiting stages. The results showed that the extracted DNA of the four cucumber cultivars differed significantly in concentration and quality according to the dominant atmospheric conditions at the study site. Out of the screened 60 RAPD primers with DNA samples of the four cucumber cultivars 12 primers revealed scribal and clear patterns with high level of polymorphisms. The informative RAPD primers were further screened with 3 pooled DNA samples of each cucumber cultivar over all climatic locations to identify genome instability. Based on the patterns intensity, the results revealed that the RAPD markers OPC-01-200 and OPC-01-300 quantitatively identified the genome of ‘Beta Alfa’ at the open field of Hada Al-Sham from those were grown at the open field of Jeddah and in the greenhouse. The genome of cucumber variety ‘Babylon’ at the open field of Jeddah was identified by 3 RAPD loci, OPT-01-140, OPT-01-180 and OPT-01-250. The RAPD markers OPG-07-170, OPG-07-300 and OPG-07-410 were quantitatively distinguished the genome of ‘Medinah’ grown in the greenhouse from those were grown in the open fields of Jeddah and Hada Al-Sham. Two RAPD markers OPE-03-325 and OPE-03-900 Quantitatively identified the genome of ‘F1-106’ grown at the open field of Jeddah.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-24 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2018.12.4.3

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Physiological properties, growth, and yield of shallot (Allium cepa var. Aggregatum) in coastal sand land with inoculation of Trichoderma asperellum and cow manure

Tuti Setyaningrum*, Didik Indradewa, Achmadi Priyatmojo, Endang Sulistyaningsih

ABSTRACT: To meet the needs of shallots, one of the horticultural commodities that is a mainstay of Indonesia's regional and national commodities, needs to increase yields. One way that can be taken is through land expansion. In Indonesia, coastal sand land is a potential land for the development of crop cultivation, especially shallots. To improve the quality of coastal sand land as a planting medium, cow manure is used as soil ameliorant organic matter. Trichoderma asperellum, one of the plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF), is used to increase plant growth. This experiment aims to study physiological characters, growth and yield of several shallots cultivars planted in coastal sand, with inoculation of Trichoderma asperellum and the addition of organic material in the form of cow manure, so that cultivars can be determined which have good growth and yield. This research was carried out on the beach sand in Samas area, Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta, starting November 2017 to January 2018. This field experiment consisting of two factors and arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The first factor is shallots cultivar which consists of four cultivars, namely: Bauji, Tajuk, Manjoung, and Bima Brebes. The second factor is the dose of organic matter in the form of cow manure: (0, 10, 20 and 30)ton/ha. Data from observations were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance, followed by Duncan's multiple range test. Various cultivars tested have a various of total chlorophyll content in leaves, plant height, total dry weight/plant and the dry weight of air-dried bulbs/ha, but it does not have a number of leaves that is significantly different. The application of cow manure with a dose of 10, 20, 30 tons/ha does not produce a total chlorophyll content in leaves, number of leaves and total dry weight/plant that are significantly different from without fertilization, but it produces a variety of plant height and the dry weight of air-dried bulbs/ha. From this study it can be concluded that from various cultivars tested, showed a significant difference in total chlorophyll levels, plant height, total dry weight per plant and weight of air-dried bulbs per hectare. Bima Brebes cultivar has the heaviest weight of air-dried bulbs per hectare. The dose of fertilizer 30 tons per hectare yield the heaviest weight of air-dried bulbs, although not significantly different from the dose of 20 tons per hectare.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 25-33 ] DOI: 10.22587/aejsa.2018.12.4.4

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