AEB Volume 13, Number 9: September, 2019

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Determination of Heavy Metals in Different Soils of Thi-Qar City

Shrrog Hammed Hlail

Abstract The objective of this study was to estimate the content of heavy metals, physical and chemical properties in different soil. The samples were collected from two locations urban area (Nasiriyah city) and rural area (Agricultural lands close to the river Gharraf). Determination of heavy metals through zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) were detected using an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). The results showed that the highest concentration of heavy metals in soil were found from the urban areas of Nasiriyah city. Zn and Cu were the most dominant metal whereas Pb had the lowest content for both soils. The results showed that urban samples had significantly (p<0.05) higher heavy metals compared to rural samples in all heavy metals studies. The physicochemical properties of soils studied (Ec., pH soil particles) showed significant differences (p<0.05) between the urban and rural areas. Variations in heavy metals content and physical and chemical properties in soil samples between locations indicating that locations play a more important role than soil structure and its physicochemical properties.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-3 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.9.1

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Evaluation of Jordanian isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and their interaction with essential plant oils when combined for the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch control

M. S. Al-alawi

Abstract The two spotted spider mite is a destructive pest for a vast array of horticultural crops. Reliance on chemical acaricides for its control resulted in resistance developmental and control failure. A more sustainable approach for the mite control might involve the use of microbial and botanical pesticides. The current study evaluated the virulence of 6 Jordanian isolates in addition to a commercial isolate of Beauveria bassiana either alone or combined with sub-lethal doses of essential plant oils for effective mite control. A bioassay was conducted in the laboratory against the deutonymphs and the adults of the two spotted spider mite to identify the most virulent isolates and the most potent oils before their combined application. Results showed that combining pine oil or rosemary oil with B. bassiana always resulted in higher mortality than either of them alone. The mortality from the combined application of B. bassiana with pine oil was 87%. The interaction between these two oils and B. bassiana was additive except for the combination of pine oil with isolate BAU016 which was synergistic. No antagonistic interaction was detected between the effective oils and the most virulent fungal isolates. These findings indicate that B. bassiana can be used with sub-lethal doses of pine or rosemary oils for effective and sustainable control of the two spotted spider mite with reduced reliance on chemical acaricides. Reduction in acaricidal applications would bring about the benefits of decreased resistance development, human health hazards and environmental contamination.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 4-10 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.9.2

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Nutritional changes of cocoa leaf-based complete feed silage during storage

Mita Arifa Hakim, Syahriani Syahrir, Asmuddin Natsir

Abstract An attempt to increase productivity has been often hindered by limited forage production during dry season. Alternative feed, which is cost-effective and competitive, can be prepared through valorization of agricultural waste such as cocoa leaves, enabling to raise their economic value. This present work aimed to understand the storability of complete feed silage made from cocoa leaves in terms of its nutritional changes during storage. We arranged completely randomized design, while experimental data were then evaluated using Analysis of Variance (Anova). The silage was treated with various levels of storage as follows: 0 week (P1), 2 weeks (P2), 4 weeks (P3), and 6 weeks (P4), and all experimental units were performed at 5 replicates. The silage was then analyzed for nutritional composition (dry matter), crude protein, and crude fiber. As a result, nutritional content of silage differed significantly among treatments. We found that content of dry matter, crude protein and crude fiber decreased gradually until 6 weeks of storage.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 11-13 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.9.3

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