AEB Volume 16, Number 10: October, 2022

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Molecular Analysis of Mineral and Tap Water to Detect Microbial Contaminants in Jeddah Province

Khalid Saeed A. Alzahrani, Mohammed H. Mutawakkil, Saleh Mohammed S. Al-Maaqar, Nawaf M. Alharthi, Mohammed A. Al-Matary, and Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed

Abstract: Since ancient times, drinking water quality has played a significant role in human diseases and infections. In Jeddah, the drinking water choices are mostly bottled water or water available in plastic containers after processing at private water treatment stations. A total of 30 drinking water samples were obtained from many sources in Jeddah, KSA: mineral water (13 samples) and tap water (17 samples). Microbiological tests were used, including a negative and positive Gram stain test for these colonies and determining the type of bacteria. To identify bacterially, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used in this study. Following that, the susceptibility of bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics is tested. The results showed that the microbial cultures were of different isolates. We confirmed that these results by microbiological examination and molecular identification found a difference between the study samples. Fifty-three bacteria were isolated from 30 samples, 34 (64.15%) tap water samples, and 19(35.85%) mineral water samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria. The highest bacterial contamination, 86.6% of all samples, was found in the tap water in 50% of samples, while 36.6% was found in mineral water. Microbiological tests and molecular diagnostic methods make it simpler and faster to shorten the detection time of drinking water contamination. The results of the current study suggest that mineral water is a better source of potable water in Jeddah than tap water. However, there may be pollution in the water at the reservoirs rather than at the water sources.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-10 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2022.16.10.1

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Satisfaction Level of Beginners Before Farmers Group to the Performance of Extenders In Barru District, Barru Regency

Eka Hardiyani, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin and Agustina abdullah

Abstract: The level of performance of the extension worker is an important thing to note so that the farmer farmers feel satisfied with the performance of the extension worker. The level of satisfaction of farmer farmers in the implementation of extension is divided into three stages, namely planning, implementation and evaluation. If the implementation of regular counseling is in accordance with the needs of farmers, it will be applied to their business so that it will increase. This study aims to determine the level of satisfaction of beef cattle breeders in the beginner ability class to the performance level of extension workers in Barru District, Kaupaten Barru. This research was conducted from July to September 2021. The type of research used was descriptive quantitative. The size of the sample in this study was determined using the Slovin formula, namely 16 farmers/breeders. The research analysis method used in this study is a descriptive analysis of the Impormance Performance Analysis (IPA), and the Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI). The results of this study indicate that in the beginner ability class, it is known that the results of the calculation of the IPA analysis have an average value of importance level (y) is 2.98 and the average value of performance level (x) is 2.99, the average TKi value is 99.87. CSI calculation which states the level of satisfaction at an interval of 60 percent or 0.60. This value has not been maximized or in the quite satisfactory category, so livestock farmer groups must continue to strive to improve performance. Meanwhile, the performance of attributes in quadrant II must be maintained so that in its development it can increase the CSI value

[ FULL TEXT PDF 11-15 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2022.16.10.2

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Quality of Compost Combination of Feces from Cattle and Laying Hens using Rice Waste as a Decomposer Media

Sitti Fatimah, Muhammad Irfan Said, Wahniyathi Hatta, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Abdel Rahman M. Said Al-Tawaha, Abdel Razzaq Al-Tawaha

Abstract: The need for compost as a source of organic fertilizer is increasing along with the increasing human food needs. Compost is a collection of organic materials that have undergone a decomposition process so that they change shape and are no longer recognized in their original form. Compost is black in color and odorless. The purpose of the study was to determine the quality of compost produced from a mixture of cattle feces and laying hens using rice waste as a medium for decomposers. The study was designed using a completely randomized design (CRD) factorial pattern, 3 x 2 with 3 replications. Factor I is a combination of feces (cattle:laying hens); (1) M1 (100%:0%); (2) M2 (50%:50%) and (3) M3 (0%:100%). Factor II is the level of decomposers (1) D1 (1%) and (2) D2 (5%). Parameters measured were color, pH, compost temperature. The results showed that the different combinations of feces from cattle and laying hens had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the color value, pH and temperature of the compost. The different levels of decomposers significantly affected (p<0,01) on the pH value and temperature of the compost, but did not affect (p>0.05) to the color value of the compost. The results of the study concluded that the application of a combination of M2 (cattle:laying hens) feces (50%:50) with a decomposer level of 1% (D1) produced the best compost characteristics and met the requirements set by the government.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 16-19 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2022.16.10.3

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