AEB Volume 13, Number 10: October, 2019

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Treatment of Synthetic Dairy Wastewater Using Disposed Plastic Materials as Trickling Filter Media: Optimization and Statistical Analysis by RSM

Shuokr Qarani Aziz and Sazan Mohammed Ali

Abstract This work was aimed to study the treatment of synthetic dairy wastewater by using the biological trickling filter technique. Synthetic dairy wastewater was prepared in the laboratory by using an organic source of commercially powdered starch. Experiments were designed, conducted, and results were analyzed by using response surface methodology (RSM). The variables were filter media depth, size, and types such as river rocks, disposed plastic caps, and parts of polyvinyl chloride pipe. The responses were chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, and colour. Optimum results obtained by RSM for the disposed plastic cap filter media with medium size of 5 cm and 60 cm depth were chosen as optimum conditions. The optimum removal values of COD, EC, turbidity, and colour for disposed plastic cap media were 90.19%, 5.21%, 88.37%, and 84.23%, respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-16 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.10.1

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Transformation of Conflict Governance in Forest Management Unit Jeneberang II

Ulfiah Nurhikmah, Yusran Jusuf


Abstract Forest management area is now very important to be discussed, with some programs issued by the government do not have to make forest governance good. Behind the many existing programs cannot be separated by the conflicts that occur therein. Forest management Unit Jeneberang II became one of the programs issued by the Ministry of Forestry to realize good forest governance in the region of South Sulawesi province. We review transformation conflicts occurring in forest management by creating conflict histograms and analyzing the transformation of each conflict at any time using live interviews and relevant document searches. We found that there was a common conflict known to society called a manifest and a closed conflict called latent. The current threat of conflict is a latent conflict that circulated widely in the area of forest management, such as the possession of land performed by certain parties.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 17-20 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.10.2

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Estimating Grazing Capacity for Desert Rangelands of Wadi Hederbah in Southeastern Egypt

Ahmed H. Mohamed, Mohamed A. El Shesheny, and Hassanein S. Badawy

Abstract Temporal and spatial variability in desert rangelands forage productivity had made estimating grazing capacity and stocking rate complicated procedure particularly under the nomadic pastoralists in developing countries. This experiment was conducted at Wadi Hederbah in southeastern Egypt with the objectives of evaluation rangeland condition, determination of rangeland productivity and evaluation of the nutritive value of the primary plant species, and estimation of rangeland grazing capacity for the area. The study area was mapped using ArcGIS and classified into four sections according to elevation levels. Rangeland vegetation survey was conducted at the study area in the spring of 2014 and spring of 2015 and vegetation attributes were determined. Chemical composition and In Vitro nutritive values of rangeland plant species common on the study area were estimated using common procedures. Appropriate methods were followed to calculate rangeland condition and grazing capacity for the study area and maps of forage productivity, rangeland condition, and grazing capacity were produced for the study area. Results indicated that there were 8 plant species including, Acacia raddiana, Aerva javanica, Alhagi maurorum, Lycium shawii, Maerua crassifolia, Panicum turgidum, Zygophyllum album, and Zygophyllum simplex. Six of them are palatable to the common livestock types in the region, and two were not palatable. Results also showed that Panicum turgidum had the highest dry matter forage production of 85.9 kg DM/ha and 75.25 kg DM/ha for spring of 2014 and spring of 2015, respectively compared with the other plant species. Moreover, Alhagi maurorum, Maerua crassifolia and Aerva javanica had higher (P<0.01) values of ME, IVDMD and IVOMD than that in Panicum turgidum, Acacia raddiana and Lycium shawii. Rangeland condition of the study area ranged between poor to fair rangeland condition. Grazing capacity as dry sheep equivalent for 6 months period for the study area were 377, 114, 253, 144 DSE for section 1 to 4, respectively. Our approach and findings regarding estimating and mapping grazing capacity would have management implication for the sustainable desert and arid rangeland development and management.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 21-30 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.10.3

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Transaction Costs of the Striped Buffalo Market in the North Toraja Regency

A.Erna Sri Mustafa, Arman, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, NurdwianaSari Saudi

Abstract The aim of this study is to (1) identify various transaction costs incurred by the farmers and (2) look at the effect of transaction costs from striped buffalo in the market. To achieve these objectives, qualitative and quantitative approaches are used with multiple linear regression analysis tools. The research was conducted from April to July 2019 in the North Toraja Regency by taking a sample of 30 breeders who specialized in selling striped buffalo. The results showed the largest transaction costs incurred by farmers was a brokerage fee of Rp.5,000,000/buffalo/transaction (12.30%) and the least cost is the transportation fee of Rp.2,100,000/month (0.53%). The amount of the brokerage fee is due to the information gap from the lack of education and weak negotiating abilities. The results of the regression analysis showed that brokers significantly affected the market of striped buffalo with a sig value of 0.006.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 31-35 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.10.4

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Molecular identification of oral microflora associated with different health conditions

Mohammed Alassiri, Mohamed Abu-Zeid, Mohammed H. Mutwakil, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed

Abstract The current study aims to detect and identify microbes in human saliva microbiota of medical students and employees and correlate species with health conditions, smokers (S), influenza infected (I) and normal group (N). A total number of 100 samples were collected from medical school male students and employees' volunteers at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in March 2017. The molecular 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated a broad diversity of bacteria representing two different phyla; Firmicutes such as Staphylococcus and Proteobacteria such as Klebsiella species. High dominance among the identified genera of Staphylococci 30%, followed by Klebsiella 15%, while unculturable species showed 50% dominancy. There was a 100% correlation of the genera Klebsiella with smokers' group. Staphylococci genera which were dominant in the normal and influenza-infected group disappeared completely in the smoker's group. Comparing the morphology data observed with molecular 16S rRNA identities, the results were in agreement with the genera identified. Our study suggests that smoking alters bacterial acquisition and oral mucosal colonization in favor of periodontal pathogens. Awareness should be created for the public on the health implication of smoking and poor oral practice.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 36-44 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.10.5

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Prospects for Agribusiness Development Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea sp) In the province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Asriani, Sutinah Made, Hamzah Tahang, Andi Adri Arief, Jamaluddin Jompa, Rahim Darma, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin

Abstract Sea cucumbers are fishery commodities that have good prospects to be developed because of high economic values. Demand sea cucumbers mainly for export each year continues to increase. In the South Sulawesi area famous as a center of business, namely Takalar, Selayar and Barrang Lompo. There are many entrepreneurs’ cucumbers implement agribusiness is not optimal, the use of tools of unsafe fishing line with KP PERMEN No.PER.02/MEN/2011 regarding fishing lines and the placement of the API and the ABPI in WPPNRI. The study was conducted in South Sulawesi with respondent as 44 people with locations in Barrang Lompo, Takalar, Selayar. Data were analyzed using analysis of financial feasibility, SWOT, QSPM. The results showed that the business financially with positive NPV and a screen, but it is technically not feasible because they use diving equipment unsafe and likely to cause paralysis/death. internal factors (strengths:the availability of sea cucumbers in the sea, the business profitable and weaknesses: compressor does not meet safety standards, lack of government attention) while external factors (export demand is high, increase foreign exchange the occurrence of paralysis). Do strategic priorities is to optimize the catch, reliable certified diver, dried quality improvement, oversight of business activities, provide education on cultivation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 45-51 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.10.6

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Food Commodity Development Strategies in Supporting Regional Food Security in Soppeng Regency

Fadilah Nurdin, Mahyuddin, Rahmadanih, Didi Rukmana, Saadah, Nurjannah Hamid

Abstract This study aims to identify strategic food commodities in Soppeng Regency, analyze alternative food commodity development strategies to support regional food security in Soppeng Regency by analyzing internal and external conditions in formulating strategies for developing food commodities in Soppeng Regency.The method used in this research is descriptive analysis, IFE and EFE and SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis showed that based on food security analysis in Soppeng District, the indicated vulnerable district was Ganra District (Priority 1) with corn as a strategic food commodity that needed to be developed. Based on the SWOT analysis there are 8 alternative strategies in developing corn commodities in Soppeng Regency, namely: 1. Increasing production through expansion of corn planting areas, 2. Developing marketing areas, 3. Conducting farmers and extension workers for corn cultivation and processing, 4. Increasing farming capital farmers, 5. Improving farmers' skills and knowledge, 6. Optimizing maize production through the application of technology and pest control, 7. Doing good cooperation with farmers, extension workers, input suppliers and home industries, 8. Strengthening government policies on fixing basic prices, agricultural machinery and production facilities.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 52-57 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.10.7

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Supply Chain and Gender Relations in Ornamental Plants Business of CV. Malino Florist.

Vidya Febrianti, Darmawan Salman, Mardiana E Fachri, Sitti Bulqis, Mahyuddin, Eymal B Demmalino.

Abstract This study aims to determine the supply chain channel of ornamental plants, the supply chain efficiency of ornamental plants, and gender related to the supply chain process of ornamental plant. The methods used in this study were primary data and secondary data. The data were processed into three stages. the first was an analysis of supply chains of ornamental plant using a three-flow supply chain, the performance of supply chain measured with the efficiency of time use, costs and business revenues, Gender relations used analysis of equality and gender welfare to see access and control. The results indicate that the supply chain pattern of ornamental plant was classified as efficient because the total production costs incurred by the CV. Malino Florist company is IDR 50,090.996 and get a total income of IDR 44,937,004 with R/C Ratio 1.9 can be seen from the results of R/C obtained, the plant company is classified as efficient and profitable because the R/C Ratio obtained> 1. From harvesting activities to transportation activities with an average of 2.5 or equivalent with 10 hours carried out once a week. Access and control over resources in the production flow is controlled by male employees, while females are more dominant in financial resources and information flow. The working time spent by men is greater than women and there is a concentration of the role of women on domestic activities while external activities are controlled by men. The pattern of decision making in the company is dominated by males in the production stream while women are more dominant in administrative activities, namely in the financial and information flow. Keywords: Supply chain, ornamental plants, gender.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 58-65 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.10.8

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Red Rice Agribusiness Strategy (Oryza nivara) In South Sulawesi Province

Munawarah, Jusni, Mahyuddin, Didi Rukmana,Nurjannah Hamid, Musran Munizu

ABSTRACT This study aims to analyze alternative strategies that can be applied in the development of red rice agribusiness in South Sulawesi Province, identify strategic issues of red rice agribusiness by looking at internal and external conditions and formulate alternative strategies in developing red rice agribusiness in South Sulawesi Province. The method used in this research is descriptive analysis, IFE and EFE analysis and SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show that the alternative strategies for developing red rice agribusiness in South Sulawesi Province that can be done to develop red rice agribusiness include: 1) Increasing Red Rice Production, 2) developing Marketing Areas, 3) Optimizing the Potential of Natural Resources, Human Resources and Existing Equipment Resources, 4) Creating and Developing Rice Production and Processing Technology, 5) Developing Farmers and Extension Workers for Cultivation and Processing of Red Rice, 6) Organizing Routine Meetings that Bridges Government and Farmer / Group Programs and Home Industry Programs, 7 ) Increasing the Quantity and Role of Farmer Groups, 8) Improving the Quality of Farmers' Knowledge and Knowledge through Education and Training, 9) Coordinating and Collaborating Between Farmers, Providers of Production Facilities, Traders, Home Industry and Financial Lembanga, 10) Strengthening Government Policy Regarding Determination Base Prices And Interest Rates Kr edit, 11) Creating a Special Region for Red Rice Cultivation, 12) Increasing the Use of Organic Fertilizers and Pesticides and Environmentally Friendly Equipment. The use of the 12 alternative strategies listed above will surely lead to an increase in the development of red rice in South Sulawesi Province.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 66-72 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.10.9

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