AEB Volume 17, Number 6: November- December, 2023

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Microbial and Molecular Studies of Pumpkin Fruit Extract Effect on Candida albicans Disease

Talat Hashem and Mohammad Morsi M. Ahmed

Abstract: Throughout history, plants have been widely recognized for their medicinal properties and their contribution to human health. Pumpkin has been used for centuries in both traditional medicine and human nutrition. It has gained attention from researchers due to its potential therapeutic properties in treating various diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and antimicrobial. While there are existing antifungal treatments available for candida infections, it is not uncommon for Candida albicans isolates to develop resistance to these drugs during therapy, leading to treatment failures. This study aimed to investigate the antifungal effects of pumpkin extract on the virulence genes of Candida albicans, including the isolation and identification of prevalent genotypes, molecular PCR testing, and examination of the impact of pumpkin on the virulence genes of Candida albicans. The study revealed that out of 100 medical specimens Candida obtained from sterile body fluid samples in local hospitals in Makkah Al Mukarramah, nine specimens were identified as Candida albicans. The results of the antifungal activity assays showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of pumpkin fruit extracts against Candida albicans ranged from 10 to 180 mg/mL, while the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranged from 25 to 240 mg/mL. The most effective antifungal activity was observed with the 75% pumpkin fruit extract, particularly with the water and methanol fractions. Additionally, the results of gene expression patterns using reverse transcription PCR. The ALST3 gene exhibited the highest expression in the methanol and pentane extracts, ALST1 showed the highest expression in the phosphorus hydrate fractions, and ALST2 had the highest expression in the acetone and methanol fractions. LIP4 and LIP1 genes showed similar expression patterns in the acetone extracts, but LIP1 had higher expression in the pentane extract. The essential oil extracts increased the expression of LIP4 genes. The SAPT1 gene had the highest expression in the phosphorus hydrate fractions, while the Ethyl sulfate and Essential oil genes had the lowest expression. SAPT2 expression was highest in the aqueous extracts, followed by the Ethyl sulfate fraction, and lowest in the phosphorus hydrate fractions. The study concludes that pumpkin is rich in beneficial compounds with nutritional and health advantages, including its potential in combating Candida infections. Various chemical compounds were identified in pumpkin fruit, showing different inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct patterns depending on the extract used. Further research is needed to evaluate pumpkin's effectiveness in vivo and identify specific active components. These findings have significant implications for Saudi Arabia's medical, social, and economic aspects.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-7 ] DOI:10.22587/aeb.2023.17.6.1

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An Overview of Techniques Used for The Molecular Identification of Genus Lavandula L.

Khalid Aedh Al-Qahtani; Faraj Abdullah Al-Ghamdi

Abstract:Plant taxonomy and species identification employ molecular markers and DNA barcoding. This emphasizes the declining number of taxonomists as well as the limitations of traditional morphological identification techniques. With a special focus on the use of the cytochrome oxidase gene I (COI), DNA barcoding has become a viable method for species identification. As plant identifiers, the rbcL gene and the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer are chosen and enhanced. Furthermore, the benefits and drawbacks of using nuclear genomes—especially the ITS region—are discussed. The usefulness of several genetic marker techniques, including RAPD, ISSR, and SRAP, in improving plant improvement and cultivar identification is assessed, and the study emphasizes the importance of DNA identifiers in boosting species discrimination. The necessity of developing a uniform procedure for DNA barcoding all terrestrial plants is highlighted. DNA barcoding is widely regarded as an essential tool in the domains of plant taxonomy, phylogenetic study, and conservation initiatives.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 8-14 ] DOI:10.22587/aeb.2023.17.6.2

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Application of cattle business insurance in Maros Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

Ilham Rasyid , Ilham Syarif , Nurul Rafidah Ashar

Abstract: Cattle Business Insurance (AUTS) is one of the government-support insurance products organized by Jasindo Agri. However, in its implementation, there were some obstacles. This study aimed to determine the application of cattle business insurance in Maros Regency, South Sulawesi Province. Research on the Implementation of Cattle/Buffalo Livestock Business Insurance in Maros Regency was carried out from September to October 2023 in Maros Regency. Data collection was carried out through interviews and field observations. The results showed that they would begin participating in the cattle/buffalo livestock business insurance program, with 1,045 livestock insured from 13 sub-districts in Maros Regency

[ FULL TEXT PDF 15-19 ] DOI:10.22587/aeb.2023.17.6.3

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