AEB Volume 12, Number 11: November, 2018

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Environmental risk assessment of heavy metals contamination in industrial drain connected to Mediterranean Sea

Mokhtar S Beheary, Fatma A El-Matary, Hazem T Abd El Hamid and Abdel Rahman Al-Tawaha

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sediment and water heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and Pb) related to pollution in an industrial drain. Results showed that variations in pH, temperature values related to different types of industrial activities along the drain which affect negatively on aquatic plants. Salinity parameters confirm that higher values near to sea as sea water intrusion. Heavy metals concentrations in water samples was Pb (0.017 mg/l), Cd (0.0039 mg/l), Cu (0.012 mg/l), Zn (0.118 mg/l), Fe (0.38 mg/l) and Mn (0.229 mg/l). The mean concentration of these metals in sediments was Pb (2.5 mg/kg), Cd (0.52 mg/kg), Cu (9.82 mg/kg), Zn (32.69 mg/kg), Fe (17266 mg/kg) and Mn (232.19 mg/kg). The mean concentrations of studied heavy metals in water followed a decreasing order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu >Pb >Cd. On the basis of the mean values of enrichement factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), degree of contamination (DC), pollution load index (PLI) and ecological risk (RI), there are no obvious contamination. To assess human health risk, non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic model were made in the present study. Results show that there are anon cacenogenic effects from ingestion route via Zn, Cu and Mn. Statistical analysis by correlation coefficient and cluster analysis were done in the present study. High positive correlation between Pb with Cd (0.815) and moderate significant between Zn with Cu (0.58). On the present study, it was obvious that there are similar percent among heavy metals in sediment samples Pb with Cd, Cu with Zn and Fe with Mn. Similarity percent showed that common source of heavy metals related to industrial and human activities in the area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-13 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.11.1

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Carapace width-weight relationships and condition factor of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea: Decapoda) in Lasongko Bay, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Abdul Hamid, Djamar TF Lumban Batu, Etty Riani and Yusli Wardiatno*

Abstract: To date, studies of carapace width-weight relationships in blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758) have primarily focused on differences between males and females within a population, whereas studies of the condition factor of this species remain limited. The objective of this study is to assess the carapace width-weight relationships and the condition factor of juvenile and adult crabs throughout the season in Lasongko Bay, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Monthly samplings of crabs were conducted using gill nets from April 2013 until March 2014. Data were analyzed by sex (juvenile and adult) and season. Carapace width-weight relationships were expressed as power and linear equations. Parameter values of the equations and the growth coefficient were tested using ANCOVA and t-tests, respectively; the condition factor was analysed descriptively. Carapace width-weight relationships of male and female juveniles and adults as well as ovigerous females exhibited very strong and positive relationships and an ismoteric pattern of growth. The growth coefficient and condition factor in both sexes fluctuated throughout the study period. Monthly fluctuations in the condition factor of male and female crabs were within similar ranges. Temporal variation in the fluctuations and timing of peak values of b and the conditions factor of male and female crabs was likely related to the crab reproductive cycle, particularly peak spawning in Lasongko Bay.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-21 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.11.2

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Biotreatment of Soil Contaminated with Spent engine Oil by Locally Isolated Microorganisms

Ayandele, Abiodun A

Abstract Bioremediation is an eco-friendly process that makes use of microorganisms to break down hazardous compounds like hydrocarbons into simpler and innocuous compounds. In this study, hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms were isolated from contaminated soil samples. Isolated microorganisms were identified and screened for their biodegradation abilities in aerobic conditions. The soil samples were contaminated with 5% (w/v) of spent engine oil and total heterotrophic bacteria count (THBC) and total hydrocarbon degrading bacteria count (THDBC) were determined by plate count method, while physicochemical and heavy metals properties of the soil samples were analysed by titrimetric and atomic absorption Spectrophotometry respectively. Gravimetric analysis was used to determine Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) after treatment with test organisms. THBC and THDBC ranged from 175 - 280 × 105 CFU/g and 47 – 95 × 103 CFU/g respectively for the control plot, while THBC ranged from 197 – 275 × 103 CFU/g and THDBC was 180 – 473 × 105 CFU/g for the contaminated plot. Six microorganisms; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp, Flavobacterium sp, Rhizopus sp, Penicillium sp and Fusarium sp were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The results obtained from the greenhouse experiment showed a significant decrease (at p ≤ 0.05) in the nutrients content of the soil samples. There was an increase from 1.09 in the negative control to 15.5% in the content of organic matter after contamination and from 1.88% to 26.8% in the % of organic matter too. There was a significant reduction (at p ≤ 0.05) in the concentration of Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr and Ni after 10 weeks of treatment with the tested organisms, but increase in pH values was observed in all the treatments. The TPH degradation (% loss) ranged from 79.7% - 89.2% after 10 weeks of treatment. P. aeruginosa had the highest level of degradation (89.2%), while Micrococcus sp and Rhizopus sp had the least degradation of 79.9%. This study showed that all the bacteria isolated from the spent engine oil contaminated soil were able to degrade the spent engine at concentration of 2% (w/v). Soil samples also supported the growth of Zea mays after six weeks of treatment. Therefore, all the isolated bacteria can be used in biodegradation experiment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 22-28 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.11.3

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The levels of Acrylamide in food items and the effect of re-heating of fried and baked foods on Acrylamide levels

Isam. M Jawad, Tawfic Arafat and Marwan Al Muwalla

Abstract Background: Acrylamide is a toxic compound, probable carcinogen and mutagen for humans. Research shows that the compound is created in significant quantities when the food is prepared at high temperatures such as frying, baking and in some cases when using dry heat. To be specific, the Millard reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that occurs during the heat treatment of food leads to the creation of Acrylamide. The purpose of this study is to determine the Acrylamide levels in selected food items specifically in those items which are rich in carbohydrates and to study the effects of reheating food on the levels of Acrylamide. An investigation was carried out on samples of processed food such as fried potatoes as well as different types of breads consumed across Jordan using Liquid Chromatography (LC) Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS) technique to determine the level of Acrylamide before and after the heat treatment. Significant amounts of Acrylamide were found in different samples of the processed food. The effect of reheating processes had directly impacted the levels of Acrylamide in fried potatoes, baked food as well as in other samples too.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 29-31 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.11.4

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