AEB Volume 13, Number 5: May, 2019


Manufacturing of Medicate Chewing Gum Against Oral Pathogens by the Extract of Seeds of Lepidium sativum L.

Nidhal M Salih and Ruaa J Kadhim

Abstract The results of the qualitative chemical detection of the active ingredients revealed that the Lepidium sativum L. (SLS) extract contained on the tannins, flavonoids, and saponines, as well as resins and alkaloids but lacked the glycosides. As well as determination of total phenols in SLS extract 44.72 mg/g also flavonoids 19.96 mg/g. Medical gum was manufactured from the following ingredients gum base, glycerine, xylitol, sun flower oil, flavor and color with the addition of the extract tested with different concentration (1.5 and 2.5 mg/g), the release of phenols compounds of chewing gum samples were estimated after each period of crushing the sample of gum in phosphate buffer. It was found that the ratio of the release of tis group of active compounds (phenols) increased with the increase of the duration of crushing gum samples until reaching 100% for all samples after 20 min. The results showed that sample of gum added to the extract (1.5 mg/g) was acceptable and no significant differences was found in comparison to the control treatment except for the sample added to the SLS extract at a concentration of 2.5 mg/g which was not accepted by the consumer due to the unpalatable taste.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-6 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.5.1


Effect of Planting Date and Calcium Spraying on Peanut Quality

Intsar H. H. Al-Hilfy and Sinan A. A. Al-Salmani

Abstract A Field experiment was carried out at one of Al-Mohmadi district agricultural fields, Heet district, Al-Anbar governorate, on the right bank of the Euphrates River, Iraq which is within longitude 42.82 o and latitude 33.63 o in sandy soil during 2012 and 2013 summer seasons to study the effect of planting dates and calcium spraying on seed quality of peanut (Local cv.). Factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications and two factors was used, the first factor included six planting dates (1st April, 15th April, 1st May, 15th May, 1st June and 15th June) and the second factor included four levels of calcium (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg Ca L-1). Results showed that the highest oil percentage (48.33% and 48.32%) was produced from planting in 1st and 15th April in the first season and 49.42% was produced from planting in 15th April in the second season, while the highest protein percentage was produced in 1st June (about 25.25% and 27.45%) for both seasons, respectively. The highest concentrations of calcium (400 and 600 mg Ca L-1) were superior in protein percentage 23.27%, 23.42% and 23.42%, 23.16% for both seasons, respectively. The combination of 15th May X 400 mg Ca L-1 gave the highest Oleic acid (55.66%) in the first season and 15th May X 600 mg Ca L-1 in the second season gave the highest Oleic acid (54.00%).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 7-13 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.5.2


Estimation of Total Phenolic Compounds, Essential Oils and Antibacterial Activity of Tannins and Glycosides Extracted from Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) and Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia L.).

Abdul-Hakeem Daham Hussein Hussein Jasim Alhadithi Sara Thamer Hadi

Abstract The recent study was conducted to evaluate total phenolic compounds and essential oils obtained from rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) and wild mint (Mentha longifolia L.) purchased from the local market in Baghdad, Iraq. Tannins and glycosides were extracted from them to study their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. It was found that the content of total phenolic compounds of wild mint extract (43.684 mg/ml) was slightly higher than that of rosemary extract (36.584 mg/ml), whereas the oil contents were 2.33 and 2.41%, respectively. The results also showed that the contents of tannins and glycosides of rosemary (14.1 and 13.09%, respectively) were higher than that of wild mint (6.35 and 3.64, respectively), but the tannins and glycosides extracted from wild mint were more efficient in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus as compared with that extracted from rosemary. Tannins and glycosides extracted from the two plants had no effect on growth of gram-negative bacterium. No antibacterial activity was observed when a combination of tannins from the two plants was used. The same observation was recorded for glycosides.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-18 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.5.3


Supply Chain Analysis Fresh Fruit Bunches Of Palm Oil

Anggi Aprilia Palupi Ahmad Ramadhan Siregar Mahyuddin Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the supply chain process of fresh fruit bunches of palm oil. Based in Central Mamuju Regency, Province West Sulawesi. This research was conducted in February - April 2019 in the topoyo and budong-budong sub-districts. The data used in the study consisted of primary and secondary data. The population of this research is oil palm farmers in the topoyo and budong-budong sub-districts. The first sample determination of this analysis was done by purpossive sampling, there are 30 farmers who have farm land upstairs 5 years. And than, for some sample of institution that who still related with supply chain of fresh fruit bunches of palm oil. futhermore depended by snowball sampling methode, when the sample was found by respondence’s information before , there were farmer’s palm oil with following groove suply fresh fruit bunches start from farmer until palm oil factory. Research methods used include: 1) Identifying all members of the supply chain, and identifying relationships between members of the supply chain; 2) Analyzing supply chain configurations that include the management of three types of flows, namely the flow of products, money and information. The results of the study show that the flow of products, information and finance from the Supply chain of Fresh fruit bunches varies according to the choices of farmers in marketing their Fresh fruit bunches. Fresh fruit bunches products from partner farmers (supply chains 2 and 3) are generally of better quality compared to Fresh fruit bunches originating from collectors (supply chain 1) because they do not experience storage. In addition, partner farmers (supply chains 2 and 3) get convenience in terms of assistance from the company. Generally, Fresh fruit bunches Palm Oil Fruit prices from partner farmers (chains 2 and 3) are higher when compared to farmers (chain 1) who sell out Fresh Palm Oil Fruit to collectors. How to pay farmers who sell Fresh fruit bunches Palm Oil to collectors (chain 1) in cash, while how to pay partner farmers (chains 2 and 3) on credit.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 19-22 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.5.4


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