AEB Volume 13, Number 6: June, 2019

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Soft rot disease in Jordan: A Review

Ibtihal Mohammad Abu-Obeid

Abstract Bacterial soft rot is one of the most destructive diseases of vegetables that occur in Jordan and in many regions of the world. It infects vegetables in the field, during transit and in storage causing great losses depending on the crop and prevailing of favorable conditions of high humidity coupled with high temperature. Generally, various bacterial species are known to be agents causing soft rot, in Jordan it was mainly caused by the pectolytic Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in addition to Pseudomonas fluorescens, and different Enterobacteriaceae genera such as Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., and Klebsiella spp., the disease was recorded in all vegetable growing regions and during different growing seasons, with a wide host range infecting many vegetable species belonging to all families causing decay of fleshy tissues. On the other hand, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atroseptecum was found to have a restricted host range of potato and was reported in cool temperate regions or early in the season where the cool temperature is prevailing in potato growing regions. The detection and identification was done by different traditional methods of biochemical and physiological tests in addition to molecular techniques such as amplification of different regions by using different sets of primers. The bacterium enters the host tissues through natural opening, injures; caused by biotic and abiotic causal agents such as insects or by wrong practices during harvesting causing decay of tissues due to pectolic enzymes secreted by the bacterium, the tissues become soft and slimy where this is the same appearance on most of hosts. Control of the disease includes more effective and sustainable bacterial disease control strategies by applying different measures that reduce wounds and store vegetables in clean stores with low humidity and cold temperature and other physical and chemical methods which is discussed in more details. This review illustrates and discusses the disease status in Jordan through presenting an overview of all the results of studies done on this disease over many years.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-6 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.6.1

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Accumulation of Six Heavy Metal by Prosopis chilensis Plant Grown in Contaminated Soil in The Vicinity of Khartoum Tannery

Ahlam.S.Mohamed, Khadiga G. Abd Elaleem, Elbushra Elsheikh Enur, Abd Alwahab Hassan Abdalla, Amani Algali Alawad and Hagir G. Abd Elaleem

Abstract Background: Industrial activities have led to considerable increase in heavy metal levels in all environments especially in soil and water. This situation encouraged scientists all over the world to deal with this problem. Studies of phytoremediation mechanisms are becoming of great importance in enabling growing industries to combat different causes of contamination; especially in the Sudan. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential value of Prosopis chilensis plant as phytoremediation for removing six heavy metals namely (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) from four type of industrial contaminated soils (four type of contaminated soil namely type (1, 2, 3, and 4)) from Khartoum Tannery, watered with unpolluted water in addition to a control experiment. Methods: Plant samples (whole plant, roots, and shoots) were analyzed for detecting heavy metals using - Ray -fluorescence machine (XRF). Heavy metal elements concentration in plant was detecting by using X-ray fluorescence technique. Prosopis chilensis (whole plant, shoot and root) were tested for accumulation of six heavy metals from different types of polluted soil. Results: The result showed that: Chromium: Among all soil type Prosopis chilensis plant, grown in soil type two showed the highest absorption percentage of chromium, obtained by root followed by the whole plant and then stem (79950, 11181 and 6044.4) respectively. Manganese: The highest accumulation percentage of manganese was found in plant grown in soil type four, obtained by the shoot (181.08) followed by whole plant and root with (166.9 and 158.31) concentration respectively. Iron: In all soil types the absorption percentage of iron in both root and whole plant was less than that of the control group, only shoot showed a higher iron ratio than the control, the highest iron percentage obtained by the shoot in soil type one was (170.46) percentage. Cobalt: The plant grown in soil type three obtained highest cobalt concentration by root (497.78), followed by the root in soil type two (377.78). Nickel: The highest absorption percentage was obtained by the shoot in both soil type one and soil type four as (171.70 and 158.49) respectively. Copper: highest absorption was obtained by root in the soil type one with (117.34) percentage, followed by the shoot in soil type four as (114.61) percentage. Conclusion: Since soil contamination with heavy metals is a serious worldwide concern, therefore eco-friendly and solar driven technology which has community acceptance need to be explored. Phytoremediation is one of such approach which needs to be explored further for the removal of contamination. So depend on the results of this study we can use the Prosopis chilensis plant for the above six heavy metals phytoremediation, the most absorbent heavy metal by Prosopis chilensis is chromium, there is a difference in the accumulation of heavy metal depending on the type of metal, soil and explant and the most absorbent heavy metals by Prosopis chilensis plant is chromium.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 7-12 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.6.2

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Production Ratio of Seedlings and Density Status of Mangrove Ecosystem in Coastal Areas of Indonesia

Rahman, Fredinan Yulianda, Iman Rusmana, Yusli Wardiatno

Abstract The propagation process of mangrove naturally occurs through a reproduction system. There are four methods of mangrove reproduction namely: vivipary, crypto vivipary, natural germination, and vegetative propagation taking place naturally every year. Study analysis of mangrove community structure was aimed to analyze the distribution and status of the mangrove ecosystem in Indonesia, and to analyze the production ratio of each mangrove species in Indonesia. These analyses were conducted by examining 105 articles relating to the community structure. From those articles, 55 articles were chosen to contain data regarding mangrove density in the categories of tree and seedling which represent 75 coastal areas in Indonesia. Results of the analysis indicate that there are 10 species of mangrove dominantly in Indonesia namely Bruguiera cylindrica, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora stylosa, Sonneratia alba, Xylocarpus granatum, Avicennia alba, Avicennia marina, and Ceriops tagal. These species are found with a status in the rare category. The high and lowest average density of mangrove species are Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera cylindrica with 1293.40 trees/ha and 99.97 trees/ha, respectively. Further, the three dominant mangrove species in Indonesia, are Rhizophora apiculata for eastern areas, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora mucronata, with densities of 1664.80 trees/ha, 1194.67 trees/ha, and 1485,29 trees/ha, respectively. The highest and the lowest seedling production ratio in Indonesia are Rhizophora stylosa (2.40) and Ceriops tagal (1.45). While, the highest ratio of mangrove seedling for eastern, central and western coastal areas in Indonesia are Bruguiera gymnorhiza (1.89), Rhizophora stylosa (3.12), and Rhizophora mucronata (3.06), respectively. Furthermore, the ratio of mangrove seedling is able to be influenced by vegetation pattern and ecosystem community structure, including mangrove species dominance in the coastal areas of Indonesia.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 13-20 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.6.3

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Analysis Supply Chain Tangerine Orange In The District Of South Central Timor

M. Marsela Banafanu, Ahmad Ramadhan Siregar, Jusni, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the commodity supply chain tangerines in South Central Timor. The research was conducted in March to April 2019. From the research that there are four patterns of supply chain channel is a pattern I (farmers, traders Kupang City Kupang city Retailers -Pedagang -konsumen) pattern II (farmers, traders Kupang-consumer) pattern III (farmers - Wholesalers Retailers city Soe- consumers) pattern IV (farmers -pedagang Soe- city collector retailer-consumer Soe city) pattern V (farmers - traders Soe city - consumers). Yangdilakukan activities include exchange activity, physical and activity facilities. There are three streams that occur are the flow of goods, information flow and financial flows (financial). The main actors involved in the supply chain tangerines namely farmers, collectors Kupang, Kupang city retailers, traders town Soe city retailers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 21-26 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.6.4

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Analysis of Marketing Strategy of Certified Rice Seeds (Case Study of Pt. Sang Hyang Seri (Persero) Regional Vi Business Unit Sidrap, South Sulawesi)

Unggul Budi Kusuma, Jusni, Musran Munizu

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the marketing strategies that are appropriate and appropriate for PT. Sang Hyang Seri (Persero) VI Sidrap Regional Business Unit for the future. this research was conducted at PT. Sang Hyang Seri (Persero) Regional Business Unit VI Sidrap. This research was conducted in March-April 2019. The data used in this study are primary data and secondary data. Analysis of marketing strategy formulation using data processing methods based on SWOT analysis, SWOT analysis will show the position of PT. Sang Hyang Series VI Regional Business Unit Sidrap in its business environment. The results showed that the company's strategic position is in a strong position in utilizing its strength to deal with its internal weaknesses where the company's main strength is its extensive distribution network while its main weaknesses are lack of promotion of certified rice seed products and limited capital owned by the company. The results of the SWOT matrix analysis show that the marketing strategies that can be chosen by the company to be considered include increasing the sales promotion of certified rice seeds and prioritizing customer satisfaction while still paying attention to product quality. PT. Sang Hyang Seri (Persero) VI Sidrap Regional Business Unit is currently in position I, where the strategy that must be done by the company is to grow and build an intensive strategy or integration can be the most appropriate.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 27-31 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.6.5

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