AEB Volume 14, Number 7: July, 2020

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Performance Evaluation and Improvement of Ifraz-2 Water Treatment Plant

Imad A. Omar and Shuokr Q. Aziz

Abstract Study of performance of water treatment plant (WTP) is essential to be assessed with all aspects and considerations including physical, chemical and bacteriological so as to determine its efficiency and to produce quality water to the consumer. Performance of any WTP is a crucial parameter to be evaluated to understand its operation, working, and efficiency. The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of Ifraz 2 WTP units, and to discover the problems of the efficiency in the units with providing appropriate solutions. Water samples were collected for six months from raw water, after clarification, after filtration, and storage tank. Turbidity removal efficiency for each unit and the whole WTP were calculated and presented. Results revealed that there is a wide variation of the raw water turbidity values which ranged from 51.8 NTU to 1978 NTU. Average removal efficiencies for the sedimentation unit, filtration unit, and the entire Ifraz 2 WTP were 92.25 %, 64.99 %, and 97.54 %, respectively. The efficiency of coagulation and flocculation processes are fluctuated due to the absence of optimum dosage of coagulant. In the filtration process, due to the little depth of filter bed, this makes the filtration process in low quality. For improving the process of filtration, an adequate adding of filter media is very necessary to improve filter efficiency. After disinfection and storage, the turbidity values of the treated water were increased in half of the samples due to availability of solids in the storage tank.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-9 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.7.1

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Adapting crop management practices to climate change

Abdel Rahman M. Al-Tawaha, Amanullah, Imran, Abdelrazzaq Al-Tawaha, Shah Khalid, Abdur Rauf, Devarajan Thangadurai, Jeyabalan Sangeetha

Abstract Dryland agriculture is synonymous with drylands, with cool wet season followed by warm dry season. Crop production in dryland areas needs to be increased to help meet the needs of a increasing world population, urbanization, and meat-rich diet change. A significant contribution to this change would be the capture and use in dryland areas of a greater portion of the minimal and highly volatile precipitation. On the other hand, Various water and soil conservation and management strategies and activities will improve productivity in water usage, while rising yields and reducing the risk of crop failure. In the dry land areas the combination of organic manure application with chemical fertilizer is important to preserve and improve soil fertility. On the other hand, selecting better plant density and seeding time will promote good, semi-arid plant production. Furthermore, the use of natural elicitors and organic herbicides in crop protection and pest control technology is an intelligent option. In this review we focus on (i) using of chemical fertilizer (ii) using organic fertilizer (iii) using natural elicitors (iv) selection better seeding rate and time (v) using of bio herbicide.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 10-17 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.7.2

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The effect of KNO3 on growth and result of three sweet corn varieties (Zea mays saccharata Sturt)

Didik Darmanto, Muh. Riadi, NovatiEny Dungga

Abstract The purpose of study is to determine the effect of KNO3 fertilizer on growth in three varieties of sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt). The study was conducted in the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Makassar from April to July 2019. The research was arranged used Separate Plot Design with main plot of KNO3 consisting 4 levels: 0 kg ha-1, 10 kg ha-1, 20 kg ha-1 and 30 kg ha-1, subplots divided into three varieties of sweet corn: Bonanza, Talenta and Secada. The KNO3 dose element not showed any significant difference, whereas the varieties showed significant differences such as Secada produced the highest number of leaves (11.5 leaves), the largest of stem diameter (2.4 cm), then the highest plant height (303 cm). Talenta variety produced the fastest age of male flower (47 days) and the fastest age of female flower (50 days). The dose of KNO3 at 20 kg ha-1 (k2) showed the highest production of cob with cover (22.0 tons ha-1). There was no interaction between dose of KNO3 and the three varieties of sweet corn on all observed parameters.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-22 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.7.3

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Growth of red onion plant (Allium ascalonicum L.) in an application by phosphate solubilizing microbes and goat dung compost

Sumadi Sriwantoko, Elkawakib Syam’un, Fachirah Ulfa

Abstract The research was held in the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Makassar. The purpose of study is to determine the effect of various types of phosphate solubilizing microbes and the provision various doses of goat dung compost on the growth of red onion. The study was arranged in a Separate Plot Design (RPT) with Main Plot (PU) of various doses of goat dung compost consisting of three levels, namely: goat dung compost with dose of 0 tons ha-1 (k0), compost of goat dung 5 tons ha-1 (k1), goat dung compost 10 tons ha-1 (k3), as sub plots (AP) are various types of phosphate solubilizing microbes consisting of four levels namely: without phosphate solubilizing microbes (p0), Streptomyces sp. (p1), Bacillus cereus (p2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p3). Each treatment was repeated three times. The results was showed that the application of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as phosphate solubilizing microbes produced the highest average of plant height (26.90 cm), the highest number of leaves (25.67 leaves) in experiments using red onion plants. Goat dung compost of 10 tons ha-1 produced the highest average plant height (29.20 cm), the highest number of leaves (27.37 leaves) in the experiment used red onion plant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 23-30 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.7.4

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Morphological and Genomic responses of Pennisetum glaucum L. (Pearl Millet) to Lead nitrate

Olawuyi Odunayo J., Erhonsele Oscar O., Chukwuka K.S. and Faneye A.O

Abstract Background: Pearl millet is a staple food globally for man, livestock, and as a source of fuel and construction materials. Therefore, the mutagenicity due to exposure of soil, plants, and animals to lead nitrate necessitated this study. Objective: This study aimed at investigating the mutagenic effect of lead nitrate on morphological characters, genomic DNA and polymorphism of Pearl millet. Materials and Methods: The seeds of twelve pearl millet were treated with four lead concentrations for 6hrs, while distilled water served as control. Molecular studies were carried out on harvested fresh leaf samples using six SSR primers. Results: The 0.02M concentration showed lethal and mutant expressions on NGB00950 and NGB00936 (albino), NGB00899 (xantha) and NGB00950 (bifoliate leaf) genotypes, while bifurcated panicle was observed on NGB00936 at 0.008M concentration. The Genotype, NGB00939 matured earlier and tolerated mutagenicity at 0.02M concentration, NGB00901 performed best for stem girth (cm), leaf length (cm), and a number of leaves, while NGB00913 and NGB00893 had better tolerance and yield (337.60 and 323.60 respectively), and NGB00960 was sterile. Conclusion: Primer Xpsmp 2086 is polymorphic and could be selected for future mutagenic breeding of cereal crops in the millet family. Therefore, lead concentrations expressed mutagenic effects on growth and yield characters as well as the genome of pearl millet..

[ FULL TEXT PDF 31-45 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.7.5

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