AEB Volume 13, Number 7: July, 2019

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Biological Activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. on Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) in Sustainable Agriculture practices

Hoda Ahmed, Salama El-Darier, Masrrat Migahid and Khansa Belkasem

Abstract Background: Moringa oleifera tree is a medicinal plant tree normally intercropped with other plants, but its effect on the associated plants is unknown. Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the probable interference between Moringa oleifera trees and Citrullus lanatus (intercrop) in mixed cropping system. Aqueous extracts with different concentrations of M. oleifera leaves (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%) were tested on germination percentage (GP), plumule (PL) and radicle (RL) lengths, seed germination index (SGI), energy of germination (GE) as well as fresh and dry weights of C. lanatus. Results: After 7 days of application, GP, SGI and GE decreased as a response to the regular application of higher M. oleifera leaves aqueous extracts (MOLAE) concentrations. As well, concentration dependent decrease in PL of C. lanatus was noticed in response to MOLAE. The fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots of C. lanatus seedlings gradually reduced in response to the increase in the extract concentration relative to control. Vegetative storage protein of C. lanatus showed the production of a new band at 50 kDa polypeptide under 10% concentration level. Distinctly, genomic template stability (GTS %) of C. lanatus reduced from 100% at control level to 20% at 10% concentration level of MOLAE. Conclusion: Moringa oleifera leaves extract showed phytotoxic effects on germination of C. lanatus, which makes their intercropping together is not economically suitable unless farmer use leaf litter trap to avoid fall of M. oleifera leaves and inhibiting the anticipated allelopathic effects on the associated crop.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-9 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.7.1

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Characteristics and Utilizatation of PVA/Mn Ploymer Nanocomposite as the Schottky

Israa Hadi Hilal, Rashid H. Jabbar and Hussein l. Abdullah

Abstract Schottky diode using nonmaterial impel tremendous interest recently due to it to be characteristic of many applications, such as switching circuit. Manganese nanoparticle synthesis via photo-reduction (UV irradiation methods) of manganese nitrate. The Schottky diode was built through used manganese nanoparticle applied on one side of the Al substrate and on the other side of Al substrate deposit PVA-manganese as a junction while a Copper wire was soldered. Diode device prepared by a spin coating method of each manganese nanoparticles, PVA and PVA/ Mn nanocomposite. The structural and electrical properties of diode device which analyzed. The current-voltage characteristics were studied at room temperature in dark and light, results showed that used nanoparticle materials effects on the conduction mechanism and electrical properties of devices.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 10-16 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.7.2

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Modeling Technical Efficiency With Production Risk: A breakdown of Kebbi State rice farms

Abubakar H. Kara, Mad N. Shamsudin, Zainalabidin Muhamed, Ismail Abd Latif, Kelly WK.Seng and Edon Aboki

Abstract This article deals with modeling technical efficiency with production risk using surveyed data of 398 rice farms in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Stochastic frontier production structure with adaptable risk stipulation was utilized to determine the efficiency level of farmers, production risk associated with input use and avenues of inefficiency. Maximum likelihood estimates of the specified procedure proved that technical efficiency of the producers deviate between 16.1% and 97.8% with a mean of 82.1%. This implies on average 17.9% rice end product is forfeited because of unskillfulness resulting from a lack of efficiency and production risk in input used. Estimates of risk function revealed fertilizer and labour as risk reducing factors while seed and agrochemicals are risk are risk increasing. Similarly, estimates of inefficiency function showed that education level and extension contact were the factors that significantly decreased technical inefficiency of the respondents in the investigation region while household size was found to increase their technical inefficiency substantially. The examination concluded that on average, rice production in the study area has been in fact wasteful (0.821) and advocates that farmers’ should use more of seed and agrochemicals to mitigate production risk in input use. Government should increase farmers’ access to education and frequent augmentation services. Finally, farmers should ensure the proper use of their family in farming activities in order to reduce inefficiency.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 17-24 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.7.3

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Antibiotic Resistance of Enterobacteria present in an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Public Health Problem

Karina Paredes Páliz, Ana María Cunachi, Lisseth Ortiz Cruz, Fabián Arias

Abstract Background: Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics is considered one of the most important public health problems in Latin America. In Ecuador, there is a high rate of infectious diseases caused by Enterobacteriaceae which mainly affect the central nervous system, digestive and urinary tract, respiratory system, bloodstream, etc. This type of infections affects children, young people and adults with no effective treatments due to the resistance to even fifth-generation antibiotics. Inadequate procedures for handling and disposal of solid and liquid waste are another cause for the generation of this resistance and its consequences on population health. Urban wastewater treatment plants represent important reservoirs of human and animal commensal bacteria. Objective: The objective of this study was determinate the resistance of Enterobacteria isolated from septic tanks of the Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant against different commercial antibiotics. Methodology: With 10 g of residual sludge by the serial dilution method in MacConkey and EMB culture media, isolations of several Enterobacteria were obtained, then, isolates were characterized and subjected to resistance tests using disks of three different antibiotics that are frequently used in infectious treatments caused by Enterobacteria. Results: Sixteen cultures with different morphology were obtained and described as common species genera within the Enterobacteriaceae: Escherichia, Salmonella, Proteus, Klebsiella, Shigella, Enterobacter. Strain 2872 was discarded due to its similar morpho-physiology to 2867. Thirteen of fifteen strains have tetracycline resistance and only two were inhibited (2873 and 2876); only one of the fifteen were resistant to polymyxin B (2870) and eight were resistant to cefepime. Conclusion: Only polymyxin B could be used for treatment of infections occurred by some of these isolated strains, although its use should be limited due to negative effects related to nephrotoxic and neurotoxic potential.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 25-32 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.7.4

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Comparative study of marketing efficiency of seaweed Glacillaria Sp and Spinosum Sp

Megawati, Didi Rukmana, Hamzah, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin

Abstract One of the centers of seaweed cultivation in South Sulawesi province is Sinjai regency. Based on the data on the export value approach and the production value of seaweed is known to have margin in the price of export seaweed in Indonesia and there is a price fluctuations at the farmer level. It is therefore assessed necessary to know its influence on seaweed marketing through a marketing analysis approach. The purpose of the study is to know the marketing efficiency of dried seaweed (Eucheuma Spinosum Sp and Glacillaria Sp) in Sinjai County. This study was conducted in Sinjai County, South Sulawesi Province during February to April 2019. The research respondent consisted of a farmer of respondents who amounted to 60 people and 6 marketing institutions. Withdrawal of respondents was done using the purposive sampling method. The analysis of the data on this research consists of a channel analysis approach and marketing institutes, analysis of marketing functions, and analysis of market behavior in a descriptive analysis. In addition, quantitative analysis was conducted through the value of margin marketing approach, farmer's share and marketing efficiency analysis. The results of the margin analysis show that channel I has the smallest marketing margin value of Rp 5.500 for the type Glacillaria and Rp 4.200 for the type of Spinosum per kilogram of dried seaweed. The highest share analysis is 35.29% for Glacillaria and 54,34% of Spinosum. From these results shows that farms are more efficient than seaweed market in coastal areas, which is reflected in the marketing margin and farmer ' share.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 33-35 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.7.5

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