AEB Volume 12, Number 7: July, 2018

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Removal of Some Pesticides from Contaminated Water Using Low Cost Materials

Mokhtar S. Beheary, Fatma A. El-Matary, Hazem T. Abd El- Hamid, Abdel Rahman Al-Tawaha

Abstract: The presence of pesticides in the environment is of high concern due to their persistent nature and chronic adverse effect on human health and the aquatic environment. In this study, efforts are made to develop low cost adsorbents to remove pesticides from aqueous solution. These materials have numerous advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. Three types of adsorbents were used for removal of five kinds of pesticides from aqueous solution. The percent removal by using banana crust meal, biochare and spent tea leaves were: Atrazine (99.6%, 92.4% and 93.7%), Diuron (96.7%, 80.14% and 82.3%), Chloropyrifos (61.8%, 72.9% and 73.4%), Dimethoate (64.4%, 42.11% and 54.18%), and Imidacloprid (77.9%, 93.09% and 96.9%), respectively. Banana meal has the ability to remove large amount of atrazine, diuron and dimethoate. Spent tea has the ability to remove chloropyrifos and Imidacloprid more than banana crust leaves and biochare.. Banana rust meal, biochare and spent tea leaves were found to be effective and low-cost alternative adsorbents for the removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions. The preparation method tolerates the usage of this material by local societies for active treatment of contamination.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-5 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.7.1

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Effect of Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis (Boiss.)’s Essential Oil Composition on Human-Pathogenic Bacteria

Ali Cherrat, Kamal Fadili, Smail Amalich, Mohamed Regragui, Mohamed El Amrani, Mohamed Bourkhoudar, Touriya Zair

Abstract: Aromatic and medicinal plants produce highly odorous molecules that can be extracted as essential oils. These essential oils, because of the chemical nature of their constituents, are considered to be great candidates to help remedy the problem of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Thus, essential oils are nowadays tested by several laboratories in order to successfully replace antibiotics. Therefore, our work consists in evaluating the antibacterial activity of Thymus zygis’s essential oil against four pathogenic bacteria frequently involved in human infections: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, wild-type Escherichia coli and penicillinase-producing Escherichia coli. Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC / MS). Then, antibacterial activity was conducted using first the disk-diffusion method on agar medium and after by the macrodilution technique in liquid medium to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of Thymus zygis’s essential oil. The chemical analyses revealed 95 constituents in this essential oil with Carvacrol (30.54%), O-Cymene (13.21%), and ɤ-Terpinene (11.76%) as main compounds. Other compounds with relatively low proportions were also identified: Linalool (4.47%), Borneol (3.96%), Z-Caryophyllene- (Z) (2.56%), Thymol (2.09%), α-terpinene (2.03%). The results of the antibacterial tests showed a significant inhibition of bacterial growth. Thymus zygis’s essential oil induced inhibition diameters from 14.00 to 45.00 mm. This suggests that the use of Thymus zygis’s essential oil could contribute to a better protection of human beings against diseases caused by these bacteria.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 6-12 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.7.2

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Evaluation of Six Sunflower Cultivar for Forage Productivity Under Salinity Condition

Abu Obaid, A.M., Melnyk, A.V., Onichko, V.I., Ismael, F.M., Al-Abdullah, M.J., Al-Rifaee, M.K. and Tawaha, A.M.

Abstract Sunflower cultivars were introduced and evaluated under saline conditions in Jordan. Objective of this study were to determine the tolerance of sunflower cultivars for soil and water salinity and to select superior cultivars for local production using the available resources. Seeds from six cultivars were introduced from Russia and it was cultivated in saline soil (15.7 dS m-1) using saline water (5.6 dS m-1) for irrigation during the spring season of 2011. In our experiments the following traits were recorded: yield and yield components and some morphological traits. Our results indicated that the sun flower cultivars varied significantly in their productivities. For example “Carslien” cultivar gave the highest dry weight (630.8 g plant-1), and seed yield (92.5 g head-1) and also gave the largest head and seed size. Also Carslien” cultivar gave the highest dry biomass and seed yield 18.02 and 2.64 t ha-1, respectively under saline soil and saline water conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 13-15 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.7.3

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