AEB Volume 14, Number 1: January, 2020

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Assessment of the Level of Bacterial Contamination of Some Public Swimming Pools in Jeddah City

Samah O. Noor, Azhar A. Najjar, Sharifah M. Alshehri, Nidal M. Zabermawi, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed

Abstract As the general public, the swimming pool is an essential place of entertainment. Square pools calculate extremely attractive places to spend time, especially for humans during the summer season. However, these pools can be a significant public hazard for swimmers, especially when plant life rates exceed those recommended by the United Nations agency. This research aims to determine the number of microorganisms. One hundred and sixty-five isolates were subjected to an organic chemistry analysis to identify the most widely distributed microorganisms were staphylococcus of the epidermis with twenty-seven, 3%, Cereus bacilli with twenty-six, 7%, enteric bacteria twelve, 1%, new bacterial species, 1%, Enterobacter cloacae new, 1%, enteric bacteria respiratory disease seven, 3%, half a dozen E. coli, 1% and enteric a pair of 4%. Significantly, the range of microorganisms isolated throughout the winter has been reduced compared to the summer. The Bacilli Cereus with ninety-nine similarity, enteric bacteria with percentages of similarity ninety-nine nothing, enteric bacteria pneumonia with percentages of similarity ninety-nine, Enterobacter with percentages of ninety-nine similarity, enteric bacteria with ninety-nine similarity percentages, Enterobacter cloacae with ninety-nine similarity percentages and enteric bacteria with ninety-nine similarity percentages nineteen.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-6 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.1.1

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Improvement of Chitinase produced from Chitin of Desert Locust by Streptomyces halstedii strain Isolated from Jeddah, KSA

Manal E. Shafi and Abd El-Nasser A. Khattab

Abstract It is important to degrade the chitin of the collected desert locusts from Saudi Arabia to maximize benefit from it. So, many of Streptomyces isolates from soil was assayed to the chitinase production after grown on medium containing 0.5% Locust chitin. The isolates MA-St-1 showed the highest records of chitinase (4.9 Units.mL-1) were obtained from Streptomyces (MA-St-1) strain. The Streptomyces (MA-St-1) was identified as of Streptomyces halstedii through BLAST analysis of the obtained 16S-ribosomal RNA gene. The fermentation process was optimized and resulted in an additional 16.33% improvement in the chitinase of the MA-St-1 strain. The induced mutants were generated from isolated Streptomyces halstedii MA-St-1, after Ultra Violet (UV) and Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) treatments. About 44 mutants were examined and the mutant E/60-12 was the highest (11.8 U.ml-1) in chitinase production with 2.07 fold higher than the parental strain. Using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) by PCR, many different DNA banding patterns were observed. And finally, to divide the mutants under study into clusters, the phylogenetic tree was drowning and the genetic diversities of the novel chitinase mutants as well as the parental strain were detected according to the genetic distances. Keywords: Desert-locust-chitin, Streptomyces, chitinase, optimization, genetic-diversity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 7-18 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.1.2

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Reduction of turbidity and metal pollution from domestic wastewater (greywater) using sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC)

Sri Magfirah HS, Nursiah La Nafie, Baharuddin, Budimawan, Paulina Taba, Eymal B. Demmallino

Abstract SMFC was a sustainable solution that could currently be applied to address the problem of water availability and environmental pollution with the additional result of electricity. This researched study on discussing the potential of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFC) in domestic wastewater treatment (greywater) by analyzing the removal efficiency of turbidity and its metals, as well as the electrical energy produced. The studied was conducted by laboratory-scale experiments without any combination of treatments. Two main ingredients, namely domestic wastewater (greywater) and sediment. The sample of domestic wastewater (greywater) was determined at the scale of the settlement area, especially on Old Bitoa Street, Borong, Manggala district, Makassar, and sediment samples were determined from Tallo river sediments, Makassar. The experimental studied in this study carried out by designing an SMFC device made from a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cylinder, using carbon electrodes with a surface area of 15.5744 cm2, the anode placed in the sediment zone, and the cathode placed in the domestic wastewater zone (greywater). The SMFC was operated in open circuit voltage mode and then monitored for 240 hours under ambient temperature conditions (25 oC - 30 oC). The quality of domestic wastewater (greywater) was analyzed using turbidity parameters and metal parameters (Fe and Mn metals) according to the Indonesian national standard method (SNI) and showed a significant efficiency of contaminant removal at 88.05% for turbidity, 69.10% for Fe metal, and 56. 63% for Mn metal. While the performance of SMFC in producing electrical energy observed from the value of the power density produces for 240 haours, the highest power density value was 0.0318 W m-2.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 19-24 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.1.3

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Relation Of Gender In Supporting Food Security Movement Program Through The Use Of Backyard Land At Households Level (Case Study)

Zulfadriani Hamzah, Sitti Bulkis, Novaty Eny Dungga, Mardiana E Fachry, Nursini, Hasniati, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin

Abstract The utilization of yard is a family farm which involves all household members so that there is a gender relation in its implementation. This study aims to analyze gender relations on yard utilization program. This research was carried out in Poleonro Village, Lamuru District, Bone Regency. Respondents in this study were 81 households chosen based on the number given. Data analysis method used was quantitative descriptive with Moser gender analysis. The results showed that (1) Gender relations were based on time allocation for productive activities both in the agricultural sector (purchase of inputs, determination of commodities, distributing of products and utilization of results) and non-agricultural sector was mostly done by men. Whereas, reproductive activities (menu planning, food processing and serving, children's education, family health and clean the house) were mostly done by wives as housewives meant the husband did more productive activities and the wife did more reproductive activities. The total time allocation used by the husband is 11.92 hours/day and the wife 12.94 hours/day both husband and wife still had enough free time so they could be actively involved in the use of the yard (2) Based on the decision making, there was a less equal decision making because decision making of the husband himself was still quite high in productive activities and his own wife in reproductive activities, especially related to household food. The husband also decided to participate in the socialization of empowerment activities, although in this case empowerment was aimed at all household members, especially wives who did more domestic works.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 25-29 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.1.4

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Gold Based Waste Management System (A Case Study: Sectoral waste Bank In Manggala District, Makassar City, South Sulawesi Province)

Andi Efi, Eymal B Demmallino, Amran Achmad, Hazairin Zubair, Alimuddin Hamzah, Andi Amri

Abstract The gold-based waste program is a new innovation in the transfer of the value of waste with gold, a special sale of waste products with direct money, now by saving community waste can be bought with gold. This research aims to (1) assessing the idea of management of gold-based waste banks. (2) Analyzing the management mechanisms of gold-based waste banks (3) Analyzing the overview of community participation on gold-based waste banks. This research was held in the Bank of the garbage in Manggala district, Makassar city. The research method used is a qualitative-descriptive approach with the technical collection of interview data, (in depth interview) full observation, and documentation. The results showed the idea of the presence of the gold-based garbage bank is the result of the cooperation of BUMN of PT Pegadaian Gold-based garbage bank in the district Manggala strengthened by innovation, the activation of managers, the success of managers and commitments. The mechanism of management of this garbage bank is the same as the conventional mechanism that distinguishes the money saving results can be converted with gold. Community participation in the presence of a gold-based garbage bank at the beginning of its opening was classified as very enthusiastic to participate as a customer. But this was not followed in the following months where only a handful of customers topped up their savings in a gold-based garbage bank. One of the factors causing the low number of customers who top up their savings in gold-based garbage banks is because consumers tend to need cash more to meet their daily needs and the funds are used up before they are saved in the form of gold savings.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 30-35 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.1.5

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Effectiveness of Modified Candlenut Shell (Alleurites mollucana) in Adsorption of Fe (III) Heavy Metals to Improve Groundwater Quality

Rismauli Simanjuntak, Paulina Taba, Baharuddin, Roslinda Ibrahim, Mursyid, Eymal Bahsar Demmallino

Abstract Currently the environmental problem that is often faced is metal pollution, especially in water bodies. One source of metal pollution in water bodies is the presence of landfills that are built close to housing. TPA is able to produce leachate water as a result of the process of decay of waste which will then be absorbed into the ground until ground water pollution occurs. One of the metal ions that is found in excess in ground water is Fe, which if accumulated can cause a decrease in groundwater quality to the public health. One of the water treatment technologies is adsorption. In this study the biomass used as an adsorbent is the candlenut shells. Candlenut shells are found in Camba District, Maros Regency. We use candlenut shells as adsorbents to reduce Fe (III) metal ions in groundwater. In this study, carbon from the candlenut shell was activated by ZnCl2 and then modified with nitric acid. Adsorption of Fe (III) ions by using candlenut shell modified carbon was carried out in various contact times, pH, and concentrations. The concentration of Fe (III) metal ions before and after adsorption was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The adsorption capacity of Fe(III) ions by the candlenut shell are determined using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results showed that the optimum time was 80 minutes, and the optimum pH was 5. Adsorption of Fe (III) metal ions using activated carbon of HNO3 modified candlenut following the Langmuir isothermal model with adsorption capacity (Qo) 15.15 mg.g-1.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 36-41 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.1.6

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Utilization of Solid Waste from Sago Flour Industry (Sago Pith Waste) as Biodegradable Plastic

Ade Rizki Fauziah, Mahatma Lanuru, Muh Syahrul, Shinta Werorilangi, Budimawan, Baharuddin, and Eymal Bahsar Demmallino

Abstract Plastic has been widely recognized in people's daily lives. Plastic is a synthetic polymer made from crude oil with various additives. Plastic waste is one of global problem because it takes thousands of years to decompose. There has been solution proposed, one of which is the use of biodegradable plastic. In this study we have used starch from sago waste, especially sago pith waste. The aims of this study (1) to synthesize biodegradable plastic based on sago waste starch; (2) to get the characteristics of biodegradable plastic. Biodegradable plastic was synthesized using starch from sago pith waste with various concentration (5 gr, 10 gr, 15 gr, and 20 gr) mixed with glycerin and aquades. Biodegradable plastic dough was printed and heated in an oven at 1200C for 12 hours Then, the solutions were heated in a magnetic stirrer at temperature 1500C and 600 rpm for 25 minutes. The aspects studied were moisture absorption, tensile strength, elongation, and biodegradability. The results show that plastic based sago waste has the best water absorption was at a composition of 20 gr of starch with value 6.075%. Also, the best tensile strength and elongation were in the composition of 10 gr of starch with values of 2.694 N/mm2 and 18.015%, respectively. Soil burial test method shows biodegradable plastic can be degraded with >80% presentation after 20 days. The addition of a large concentration of starch would accelerate degradation process,but decrease moisture absorption. It’s indicated that sago pith waste starch shows the high potential for making biodegradable plastic.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 42-47 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.1.7

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Differential RNA editing of ATP complex in different tissues of Catharanthus roseus plastid

Wasimah B Alshammari, Huda Alhamdan, Thana Khan, Sameh E. Hassanein, Ahmed M Ramadan

Abstract Individual nucleotides in RNA transcripts of plant organelles undergoes a post-transcriptional alteration known as RNA editing which can lead to the divergence of amino acids encoded by edited RNA from the proposed products. In this study, RNA editing sites of protein-coding atp gene complex from the plastid genome of Catharanthus roseus was analysis and then compared across cDNA transcripts of different tissues (flower, leaf, stem, root, hairy root and seedling). C-to-U editing sites were identified via bioinformatic tool which led to 4 amino acids changes. In total 5 editing sites, 4 affected deduced amino acids and one was silent, were predicted in only two genes out of six. Three editing sites in atpA (C737, C791, C914) and two in atpI (C438, 620) The five edited sites were distributed differently among the six tissues informing that RNA editing in plastid is tissue-dependent. Interesting, editing events occurred at the same quantity in leaves, stems, roots, hairy roots and seedlings and slight fewer in flower tissues. All four affected deduced amino acids led to the increase of the hydrophobicity of atpA and atpI proteins indicating that RNA editing might have an influence on the function of the target genes. The current study may provide important input for detecting the strength of RNA editing in the ATP complex of different organs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 48-55 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.1.8

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Prophylactic impact of Egyptian propolis on rat liver exposed to aluminum silicate toxicity: biochemical and histopathological studies

Ali H. Abu-Almaaty, Yasmin M. Abd El-Aziz, Nahed A. Omar, Ahmed M. Abdeen

Abstract The objective of this research was focused on the ameliorative point of natural product extract (propolis) in liver's rat after exposure to two different doses of aluminum silicate (AlS). Sixty adult albino male rats (weighting: 100 to 120 gram) that were distributed into six groups equally as ten animals in each group for two months. The 1st group was kept normally as healthy control one. The 2nd group was taken propolis extract only (200 ml/kg) oral by stomach gavage tube during the experiment day after day. The 3rd group was injected intra peritoneal (IP) by 5 mg/kg of AlS was considered as low dose, twice weekly. The 4th group was received propolis extract as orally day after day and at the same time was injected with low dose 5 mg/kg of AlS, twice weekly. The 5th group was exposed IP to 20 mg/kg of AlS as high dose (twice weekly). The 6th group was given extract of propolis orally day after day and in the same time was injected with 20 mg/kg of AlS in twice weekly. At the end of experiment, pieces of liver were taken for biochemical assays as well as the whole liver for histopathological and histochemical examinations.The results showed in the biochemical activities of 3rd and 5th groups, highly significant decrease in glutathione reductase (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels of rat hepatocytes (p-value ≤0.01) while a marked increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Great histopathological changes were noticed in the architectural studied of liver sections and sever depletion was found in histochemical contents as carbohydrates and total protein. On the other hand, administration of propolis extract to both doses of AlS treated rats (4th and 6th groups) showed a marked improvement in the biochemical activities as well as the histological background and moderately enhancement in the histochemical contents. In conclusion, there is a definitive cytotoxic effect of AlS in liver's rat that could be improved by the propolis extract due to its antioxidant properties. Propolis can take as a nutritional supplement and has a tremendous potential prophylactically to aluminum silicate toxicity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 56-64 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.1.9

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