AEB Volume 13, Number 1: January, 2019

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Diagnostic Studies of Infectious Bronchitis Disease in Broilers using Pathological and Molecular Investigations in Kaliobeya Governorate, Egypt.

Heba M Abdel- Ghany and Nora M Elseddawy

Abstract One thousand, 14-days-old, broiler chickens with respiratory manifestations and a high mortality and high morbidity in Kaliobeya Governorate were the subject of our investigation. Specimens from different organs including trachea, air sacs, lungs, kidneys, liver, heart, brain and spleen were collected and subjected to pathology. The collected specimen were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin solution, dehydrated in gradual alcohol (70-100%), cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin. Five microns thickness paraffin sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) dyes then examined microscopically. Some of the collected specimens were stored frozen at -20°C to be subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Macroscopically, the trachea showed catarrhal tracheitis represented by congestion and catarrhal exudate inside its lumen with pneumonic area has been observed in lungs. The Kidneys were enlarged, inflamed and the ureters were distended with urates. Necrosis of the epithelial lining of trachea besides hemorrhages, congestion and necrosis with heterophils` and lymphocytes` infiltrations were detected microscopically in kidneys with bronchopneumonia in lungs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was accurate, rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool for detection of IBV in examined chicken organs. The aim of the present study was directed for fully illustration of the histopathological lesions of IBV in broilers as one of the major economically important poultry diseases in Egypt.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-6 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.1.1

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Microbial and molecular identification of microbiota (Nosocomial Infection) in day care unit

Jummanah Sameh Showlag, Ahmed M. Al-Hejin,, Noor Mohammed Bataweel, Mohamed Abu-Zaid, Maged Mostafa Mahmoud, Azhar Abdullah Najjar, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed

Abstract Patients in the hospital are usually immunocompromised. So, Nosocomial infection or healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which described as onset more than 48 hours after hospital admission, are a severe issue for the patients in Day care units (DCUs). It is responsible for the increase of mortality, morbidity and the duration of stay in the hospital. About one out of 25 patients have a minimum one nosocomial infection. The environment that surrounds the patients is crowded by equipment for monitoring and organ support (e.g., monitors, ventilator, extracorporeal life support machines). Moreover, the bacteria infectious may come from many different sources (e.g., individuals in the hospital, healthcare hand’s, on surfaces, or equipment). HAIs regularly rise as a result of the formation of biofilms at the surfaces of these medical devices. The most gram-positive bacteria that because HAIs are Group B Streptococci, Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus …etc. As for gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Salmonella…etc. some of these bacteria are resistance for most of the antibiotics. This review aims to support our information about the Epidemiology of nosocomial infections.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 7-13 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.1.2

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Screening and Prevention of Nosocomial Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

Roqaiah M. Al-Jabri, Ahmed M. Al-Hejin, Rukaia Gashgari, Noor Mohammed Bataweel, Mohamed Abu-Zaid, Maged Mostafa Mahmoud, Azhar Abdullah Najjar, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed

Abstract Infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are usually immunocompromised. So, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), also known as, nosocomial infections, consider a severe issue for infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). HAIs are described as onset more than 48 hours after hospital admission. In fact, it is responsible for the increase of mortality, morbidity and the duration of stay in the hospital. The rate of HAIs in NICU is range from 6% to 50% per admission. However, this rate rises by 3 to 20-fold in developing countries as contrasted to developed countries. Also, about 2.9 million newborns die yearly during the initial 28 days of their life. Importantly, the environment that surrounds the patients is full by equipment for organ support and monitoring e.g., ventilator, monitors, extracorporeal life support machines. Moreover, the bacteria infectious may come from different resources (e.g., people in the hospital, healthcare’ hands, on equipment or surfaces). In fact, HAIs regularly rise as a result of the formation of biofilms at the surfaces of these medical devices. The most gram-positive bacteria that because HAIs are Group B Streptococci, Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). As for gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Salmonella…etc., some of these bacteria are resistance for most of the antibiotics. World Health Organization (WHO) put many infection control techniques that may help to reduce the nosocomial infections. Therefore, this review aims to highlight and give brief information about the problem of healthcare-associated infections in NICU and the methods of environmental decontamination in hospitals.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-23 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.1.3

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Enhanced antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of Ducrosia assadi Alava. by chitosan

Mansooreh Khodashenas, Arsalan Shekarchian, Najmeh Soleymani

Abstract Secondary metabolites are naturally occurring substances in plants. Ducrosia assadii Alava belongs to the family Appiaceae, is a good source of phenolic compounds and natural antioxidants. Chitosan, a glucosamine polysaccharide derived from chitin has known as a biological elicitor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of Chitosan (0, 500, 750, 1000 and 0.50 mg/L) on the plant metabolite profile, including: total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, total anthocyanin contents and free radical scavenging. Free radical scavenging activity was determined according to the elimination of DPPH radicals and expressed by IC50 index. The total phenol and Total flavonoid content was determined by the Folin– Ciocalteu reaction and Aluminum chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Results showed that chitosan significantly increased all measured traits (except flavonoids). This effect was more obvious at 750 mg/L concentration. The IC50 of the methanolic extract showed that plants treated with 750 mg/L had the most free radical scavenging activity. These results emphasized the importance of biotic elicitors for enhancement of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of D. assadii, which might be alternative of genetic modification. Ducrosia assadii is a viable source of natural antioxidants which can be increased by suitable concentration of Chitosan foliar application.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 24-28 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.1.4

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Weather variability in a decade and its current impact on airborne pollen and spores in Nsukka, Nigeria

Dimphna Nneka Ezikanyi, Gloria Sakwari and Peter Burt

Abstract Pollen and spores are propagules released from plants and fungi for the sole purpose of reproduction. Their abundance and constituent predispose them as major triggers of allergy. However, their dispersal and seasonality are determined by biological activities and their response to weather variability. Studies on weather variability in a decade and the impact of current weather on airborne pollen and spores in Nsukka (South- East Nigeria) were carried out. The aim of the study was to assess weather variability in a decade and relationship between present weather variables and airborne pollen and spores concentration in ambient atmosphere in the study area. Weather parameters were collected from the Meteorological Centre in the study area. Aero samples were collected monthly using a Tauber-like pollen sampler modified to sample 1.52 m above ground. Samples were sieved through100 μ mesh wire gauze to filter off large organic and soil particles. The liquid with suspended palynomorphs was centrifuged at 2500 revolutions per minute (rpm) for 5 mins and subjected to acetolysis in other to remove tissues and organic debris from surface of pollen and spores. Weather parameters chronicle profound weather variability in a decade in the region, which has led to the present shift in onset of rainy season, shift in peak periods of rain and off -season rain. Change in weather brought by the onset of rainfall triggered sporulation and dispersal of diverse spores into the ambient air, especially potent allergenic spores with the spores of Ovularia, Bispora, Curvularia, Nigrospora, Helminthosporium . These “hydrophilic fungi” were abundant in the rainy season, though in varying quantity. Atopic individuals should take prophylactic approaches prior to onset of rainy periods to avoid fungal hypersensitivity at the rainy period.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 29-38 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.1.5

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Why Using Organic Fertilizers and Biopesticides is Important for Food Legumes Production in Jordan?

Mohunnad Massimi, Muhammad Haseeb, Nour Abdel Rahman

Abstract Organic farming involves holistic production systems that avoids the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticides and genetically modified organisms, thereby minimizing their deleterious effect on environment. Agriculture area under organic farming ranges from 0.03% in India to 11.3% in Austria. Organic farming is beneficial for natural resources and the environment. Organic farming is a system that favors maximum use of organic materials, microbial fertilizers and biological control pesticides to improve soil health and to increase yield. Because most animal food products are too expensive for the rural poor, a significant proportion of the Jordanian population suffers from both protein energy malnutrition and chronic energy deficiency. Statistics on food demand and fertilizer requirements highlight the dependence on chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides for food crop production. However, legume crops have a potentially important role to play in increasing indigenous nitrogen production, besides meeting human demands for protein and energy. Some legumes have the ability to solubilize otherwise unavailable phosphate by excreting organic acids from their roots, in addition to improving soil fertility. Legumes also help to restore soil organic matter and reduce pest and disease problems when used in rotation with non-leguminous crops. In Jordan, indigenous legumes such as chickpea, lentil and fababean are more nutritious than other legumes and offer major scope to restore soil fertility. This short scientific note describes the importance of promoting other legumes like green beans and green cowpeas in the context of national food security through extension and rural women societies and by using organic fertilizer products and biological safe pesticides.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 39-42 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.1.6

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Leptin gene polymorphism in Boerawa and Peranakan Ettawa (PE) goats from South Sulawesi region
1Magfirah Nur, 2Lellah Rahim and 2Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong

Abstract The leptin gene is a gene that can affect weight gain. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between leptin gene with body weight, body dimensions, amino acids and fatty acids in Boerawa and PE goats. 51 Boerawa and 36 PE goats for blood sampling and DNA and 1 sample of Boerawa goat milk and PE for analysis of amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Amplification of the leptin 522 bp gene using the PCR-RFLP method with the BsaA1 restriction enzyme. In this study, we found two alleles in both goats. Allele A is the highest frequency allele in both populations with a frequency of 0.951 and 0.972 in Boerawa and PE goats. While the G allele was slightly with 0.098 and 0.0556 in Boerawa and PE goats. The observed heterozygosity in both goat populations in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium means that there is no strong selection that occurs in the leptin gene in this population.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 43-47 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.1.7



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