AEB Volume 12, Number 1: January, 2018

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Molecular Characterization of two Maize Hybrids Based on Primer Bias

Ehab R. El-Helow, Reem Badr, GamalOsmanand Amani Abdel-latif

Abstract: The DNA sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA showed great discriminatory power in angiosperms. However, a common complication in phylogenetic studies is the existence of two allele sequences with variable nucleotide sites for each locus in a diploid. The direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products frequently results in a composite chromatogram for each individual organism. Therefore, various methods have been investigated to obtain single haplotype sequences.For molecular characterization of the two maize (Zea mays) hybrids, M10 and M321, high-quality genomic DNA was extracted from the grains using a modified Mericon extraction method. The universal primers, ITS1 and ITS4, were used in PCR for the amplification of alternative ITS alleles in each DNA sample. Among 2 ITS primers that were examined, DNA sequencing using ITS1and ITS1.1 primers resulted in a complex chromatogram with two or more homologous ITS sequences of each genome. However, ITS4revealed a single haplotype sequence for each strain. On the basis of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool similarity search, each of the two obtained allele sequences revealed a pattern characteristic to its strain. Along with closely related ITS haplotypes of other strains of Zea maysthat are available atNational Centre for Biotechnology Information databases, the two obtained sequences were aligned and phylogenetically analyzed.On the basis of primer bias, we suggest that studying known alternative ITS primers for the direct sequencing of pooled PCR products facilitate in identifying at least one primer that can generate a single ITS haplotype sequence from a diploid genome. Primer biases are investigated on the basis of the quality of sequence output.

[FULL TEXT 1-5] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.1.1

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Effect of Non-farm income on Poverty Status Among rural farmers in Pakistan (A Case Study of Tehsail Bahrain District Swat)

Waqar Ahmad and Tingwu Yan

Abstract: The Study examined the role of rural non-farm income on poverty reduction among the rural farmers in Tehsail Bahrain, District swat,Pakistan. The study shows the factors which affect the function of rural non-agricultural income, and the methods in which rural non-farm income contribute to poverty reduction. Randomly selected 300 Questionnaires from the rural farmers of Tehsail Bahrain, District Swat.The main findings are as follows: (a) Main factors which affect non-farm income of rural farmers are the Household size, low education level, and low farm income. (b)Non-farm income increases total incomes of the farmers and enabled household to purchase food, payment for health care expenses, payment for education of children, and investment in agriculture. Therefore, efforts should bemake to improve the level of education of ruralfarmers, and improve agriculture sectors, and also non-agricultural sectors in the same direction.

[FULL TEXT 6-10] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.1.2

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Boosting Hypericin and Herb Yield of Hypericum triquetrifolium L. by Leaf Enlargement

Moh`d Al Rifaee, Fadel Ismail, Moa`th Al Gharaibeh

Abstract: Hypericum triquetrifolium is a source for the active metabolite hypericin that used as antitumor, antiviral and antidepressant. The aim of this study was to enlarge the small-sized leaves of the plant to maximize the hypericin and herb yield. Seeds were collected from two wild populations in Jordan (Ramtha and Amman) and soaked in varied colchicine concentrations for different periods. Seedling survival averaged 22.4%, and the lowest survival (4.4%) recorded when the colchicine treatment 0.3% was used. For two growing seasons (2014 and 2015) plants were morphologically described in the filed then harvested. Colchicine randomly accelerated or reduced hypericin content and growth. Treated plants produced 34.4% higher hypericin than untreated plants and the highest hypericin content (0.379%) extracted from a plant treated by 0.3% colchicine for 30 hours. Plants varied in dry weight and produced stunted (2 to 4 g) to a huge plants (more than 50 g) comparing to untreated plants (average 22 g). The highest hypericin producing plant harvested 69% more dry weight over the treatment`s mean and totaled 10.2 mg hypericin plant-1. The highest dry weight (86.6 g) producing plant harvested 229.8% more dry weight over the treatment`s mean and totaled 13.7 mg hypericin plant-1. As hypericin content increased, greatest number of the hypericin black nodules on leaves was counted; this character can be used for plant selection in the wild populations. Considerably, treated plants developed varied leaf sizes (9 to 64 leaves in 6.25 inch 2) and varied leaf shapes (ovoid, linear, elliptic and ovate). Genetically, treated plants were separated in different groups, while untreated plants grouped solely. Certain treated plants were grouped uniquely including the plant with the lowest hypericin content and the plant with the highest dry weight and total hypericin production. These results are reflecting the genetic modifications and diversity within the new developed plants. The developed plants with higher hypericin and herb yield will be increased by tissue culture for proper homogeneity and field establishments and their seeds and generated progenies will be evaluated.

[FULL TEXT 11-15] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.1.3

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Potential benefits of Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic and its advantages in human health and industrial applications: A review

Amro Abdelazez, Heba Abdelmotaal, Zong-Tao Zhu, Jia Fang-Fang, Rokayya Sami, Lu-ji Zhang, Abdel Rahman Al-Tawaha, Xiang-Chen Meng

Abstract: The pivotal objective of this study was to focus on the importance of one species of lactic acid bacteria “Lactobacillus plantarum” and its influences on human health as well the applications in food industry. Lactobacillus plantarum is Gram-positive bacteria usually found in nature, has industrial importance as a vital element of fermenters used in probiotic fermented food products, which are consumed by an increasing around the worldwide. Further, the potential benefits of L. plantarum as a probiotic for human health include regulating the immune system, reducing cholesterol levels, keeping intestinal flora in balance, and reducing the risk of tumours. Substantially, L. plantarum produce lactic acid, antibacterial bioactive compounds, and further exopolysaccharide for express the antagonistic potential against intestinal foodborne pathogens activity. In conclusion, we expressed that review article to focus on the most important aspects of Lactobacillus plantarum in human health and fermented probiotic food productions.

[FULL TEXT 16-27] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.1.4

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