AEB Volume 14, Number 2: February, 2020

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Reproductive Cycle of Anadara tuberculosa (Sowerby, 1833) (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in a Mangrove System of the Chone River Estuary, Ecuador

Rodolfo Patricio Panta-Vélez, Alexandra Bermúdez-Medranda, Pedro Mero, Dwight Arrieche, Vanessa Acosta-Balbás

Abstract The Population structure, sex ratio, sexual maturity index and the gametogenic cycle of Anadara tuberculosa were analyzed between November 2007 and October 2008, in the mangrove estuary of the Chone River. Random samples were collected from the artisanal fishery, for biometric and histologic analysis. Biometric parameters shell length (L), shell height (H), shell thickness (T), total weight (W) and Fulton metabolic index (K) presented significant differences between months and showed an isometric growth model. The metabolic index (K) decreased in inverse relationship with H. Monthly shell length frequency histograms show population bell shaped distribution, with maximum values between 40-50 mm L. Histological analysis showed that the sex ratio in different sizes is two females for each male, showing monthly differences between sizes and sexes. The presence of the females was independent of the sizes. with monthly differences (χ2, P> 0.05). The gametogenic and reproductive cycle was synchronized between sexes. The gonadic index did not differ between sexes, being a mature population with periodic spawning. Both sexes reproduce several times a year, with a low proportion of the population in atresia. Gamete production is continuous, and the reproductive strategy is opportunistic associated with food availability. Casual hermaphroditism was found. A low proportion of the sample analyzed showed individuals with female and male gonads dispersed in male acinus, this being the first report of casual hermaphroditism in A. tuberculosa. Protandric hermaphroditism may be associated with the imbalance of the female sexual proportion. Fishing takes place in a significant proportion of the population that has not reached sexual maturity. The temporal variation of reproductive activity shows that A. tuberculosa does not present a synchronicity of sexual maturity with other areas of the Ecuadorian Pacific, important information to establish resource management strategies by location. The results obtained should be considered with a view to raising management actions at the local level that allow sustainable fishing exploitation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-11 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.2.1

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Studies of Micro Plastics contamination on mussels, seawater, and sediment at Sanrobengi Island of South Sulawesi

Ramdha Mawaddha, Firdaus, Akbar Tahir

Abstract Mussels are filter feeder organisms which are categorized as sessile organism. They are vulnerable to be contaminated with microplastic (MPs) in the marine environment. Mussels are the consumed commodity since they contain high protein, such as the case in Sanrobengi Island, Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi. The laboratory analysis was conducted at Marine and Fisheries Sciences Faculty and Math and Science Faculty, Universitas Hasanuddin. The goal of this study is to analyze the microplastic abundance in the mussels of Perna viridis and Mactra sp., seawater and sediment at Sanrobengi Island. This study also analyzed the types of plastic polymers found in samples with FTIR methods. Data was collected in August 2019 in the form of primary data collection using observation techniques. The research method used is the descriptive survey to find the amount, type, color, and size of polymer microplastic. Purposive random sampling technique was carried out on the species of Perna viridis and Mactra sp. with 35 individuals collected respectively. Seawater and sediment samples were collected from triplicate from 4 stations. The results showed the average abundance of MPs on P. viridis was 14.62±1.46 item/individual, and for Mactra sp. was 2.11±0.29 item/individual. The average abundance of microplastic contaminants in seawater was 0.28 item/liter and sediment was 169.16 item/kg. Meanwhile, the predominated polymer types identified on P. viridis and Mactra sp. was Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE) while in sediment and seawater samples was Polyurethane (PU). Mussel, seawater and sediment in Sanrobengi Island has been contaminated by MPs particles. Moreover, the contaminated mussels also can be harmful for food security and human well-being. The high level of contamination found in mussels can be defined as the sign to conducting an immediate effort in a proper plastic waste management in Sanrobengi Island.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 12-17 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.2.2

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Utilization of Household Organic Waster (Leachate Water) as a Source of Liquid Organic Fertilizer with the Addition of Bio activators (Case Study: Congko Village, Marioriwawo District, Soppeng Regency)

Munawwarah Nawir, Muchtar Salam Solle, Kahar Mustari

Abstract They are overcoming the problem of waste by changing or utilizing it as raw material for liquid organic fertilizer for the production of natural materials. Manage biological household-scale wastewater (leachate water) originating from households with an anaerobic process (without oxygen). This study aims to analyze the effect of leachate water with the addition of bio activators and analyze the content of liquid organic fertilizer based on quality standards according to the criteria of the Minister of Agriculture Regulation 2011. This research was conducted in September 2019 to December 2019, located in Congko Village, Marioriwawo District, Soppeng Regency. Testing liquid organic fertilizer; Makassar Laboratory Center, This type of research, is an experimental study that aims to determine the effect of adding bio activator types, variations in wastewater (rice washing water and old coconut water). Chemical observations (pH, C-Organic, C / N ratio, Nitrogen, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, E. coli). The results showed that the entire sample of a combination of liquid organic fertilizer produced using MOL activator (pineapple and cow urine with variations of wastewater (rice washing water and old coconut water) gave a more productive work in degrading garbage. The combination of liquid organic fertilizer from the sample tested B2A2 (MOL bio activator (cow urine) + old coconut water)) almost meets the standard but, the micronutrient element that is Cu has not approached the minimum quality standard according to the criteria of the Minister of Agriculture Regulation 2011.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-24 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.2.3

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