AEB Volume 13, Number 2
: February, 2019
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Antifungal Properties of Citrullus colocynthis Leaves Extracts Against Vaginal Candida Infection

Wael A. Alsubhi, Ahmed M. Al-Hejin Kulvinder S. Saini, Mohamed Abu-Zaid, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed

Abstract The emergence resistance of Candida spp. to antifungal agents lead to serious problems in human health. Candida spp. that cause vaginal infections now is resistant to some classes of Azole, Amphotericin B, and Echinocandin, and this phenomenon is an emerging problem across the world. Citrullus colocynthis is a medicinal plant used in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in traditional medicine practice to cure disease in humans. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of C.colocynthis leaves against Candida spp. that caused vaginal candida infections. The leaves were extracted by 80% methanol and sterile distilled water (aqueous), the evaluation was performed by broth microdilution assay Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and agar well diffusion method. The Candida spp. was identified by the VITEK 2 system and CHROM agar. Moreover, determine the antifungal susceptibility of the isolates by antifungal agents’ disc. The result of agar well diffusion and MIC showed significant antifungal activity against 6 isolates of Candida spp. that was resistant to five antifungal agents’ disc. This is the first time we report the antifungal properties of leaf extract on 6 strains of Candida spp. which completely resistance to antifungal agents’ disc. This study revealed that the leaves of C.colocynthis have antifungal properties against resistance Candida spp. and have a promising source as an alternative antifungal agent for treating the infection.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-7 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.2.1

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Molecular and Microbial Studies Survey for Camel Udder Microbiota

Zayed Alnefaie, Mohamed Abu-Zeid, Mohammed H. Mutwakil, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed

Abstract The definition and definition of microbes on the camel's camel is very important so as not to induce contamination of raw milk, which is important for producers and consumers of milk for several reasons, the most important of which is the preservation of human health from diseases resulting from contaminated milk or diseases that affect the breast of the camel or camels Both the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Drug Administration. Traditional detection methods are known to be many steps, time-consuming, or costly. On the other hand, molecular detection methods are faster and more sensitive, such as gene sequencing of the gene for the 16S gene.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 8-13 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.2.2

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In vitro Test of Kefir Mask in Combination with “Bedak Lotong

Andi Muslimah Nurul Fitratullah, Ratmawati Malaka, Fatma Maruddin

Abstract Antibacterial properties are one of the crucial factors that determine quality of face mask. To acquire this feature, incorporation of herb-based additives can be a promising way. “Bedak Lotong” is a traditional product known to exert antibacterial activity as shown in black glutinous rice (Oryza sativa Linn. var. glutinosa), temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.). This present work aimed to investigate the effects of “Bedak Lotong” addition on quality of kefir mask. The experimental work was performed using completely randomized design, consisting of two stages. First, the effect of incubation time (12, 18, and 24 h) was studied, while the second stage was carried out to investigate the effect of different ratios (60:40; 50:50; 40:60). The results showed that addition of “Bedak Lotong” could enhance antibacterial activity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-16 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.2.3

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Removal of toluene diamine and its derivatives from polyurethane foam using immobilized Trametes versicolor

Åke Stenholm, Mikael Hedeland, Torbjörn Arvidsson and Curt E. Pettersson

Abstract Background: In addition to uses in home furnishings and the construction sector, polyurethane foam (PUF) is also prevalent in medical products such as scaffolds and implants. However, these applications raise concerns for human health as the use of this material can result in exposure to the carcinogenic substance 2,4-toluenediamine (2,4-TDA). The objective of this study was to identify easily extracted PUF-residuals and to study the removal of them in a biodegradation experiment including immobilized Trametes versicolor. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF MS) was used in MS and MS/MS-mode to confirm the identities of PUF-related compounds and follow their concentration changes. Results: Except for 2,4-TDA and 2,6-TDA which were confirmed by standards, previously not reported substances were tentatively identified, among them TDA-dimers. These dimers include homodimers, heterodimers containing 2,4-TDA and 2,6-TDA and compounds that are hydroxylated. The experiments that were performed in an acidic fungal culture revealed a not previously described removal of these compounds below the approximate nM detection limit. The mechanisms behind their removal may include biosorption to fungal mycelia, bioaccumulation, use of them as nutrients or extracellular catabolism. Conclusion: The results of this study not only highlight the ease by which harmful compounds were extracted from the investigated PUF-quality which is used in non-medical applications, but also the possibility to use fungal-based methods to eliminate them. This could be facilitated by an initial extraction of PUF (excluding fungi) followed by a removal of the substances with PUF-immobilized Trametes versicolor. The findings in this study may be of interest to further investigate PUF-residuals in products aimed for medical applications.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 17-29 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.2.4

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