AEB Volume 12, Number 12: December, 2018

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Screening and Molecular Identification of Microbiota in Human Oral Cavity

Mohammed Alassiri, Mohamed Abu-Zeid, Mohammed Zini, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed

Abstract: Since oropharynx is very important, we need to make sure that the oropharynx does not contain microbes. The present study aims to detect and identify bacteria in the microbiota of human saliva using Gram phenotypes and molecular methods using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Metagenomics sequencing will be performed to extract complete DNA from samples. The human oral cavity can be exposed to various types of environmental microorganisms that are inhaled through the air, drinking water and food. An oral cavity is a place for synanthropic bacteria, some of which (for example, Neisseria spp., A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. forsythensis (previously Bacteroides forsythus) and T. denticola. & Streptococcus.). May cause illness when entering other areas of the body. In healthy people, flora inhibits colonization by invading microorganisms by altering the pH, producing bacteriocins and mechanically blocking mucosal surfaces. Screening and molecular identification of microbiota in human oropharynx is an important issue as noted in this study on healthy subjects, some species are site specific at one or multiple sites, while other species are subject specific. As much as 60% of the species detected are not presently cultivable. By using culture-independent molecular methods, we previously detected over 500 species or phylotypes in subgingival plaque of healthy subjects and subjects with periodontal diseases Overall, there are still more species to be discovered, although the number of new species is beginning to reach saturation.It is so important to fully define the human microflora of the healthy human oral cavity before we can understand the role of bacteria in human oral disease and problems.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-4 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.12.1

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Effect of environmental conditions on accumulation of some pharmaceutical substances in Calotropis procera

Saeed Baabad, Hani M. Ali, Thana Khan and Ahmed M Ramadan

Abstract Calotropis procera, is found in many different zones or habitats and known for being a source of secondary metabolites (ex., glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids) which contain pharmaceutical compounds used in treatment of many diseases. Our study aims to identify the suitable day light period for high accumulation of pharmaceutical compounds and the effect of irrigation on their concentrations in Calotropis procera. In this study, using UPLC/MS/MS separation, concentration variation in very important three of glycosides - which have medical effects- was detected and observed under the environmental conditions (light- irrigation). These compounds were Calotoxin, α-amyrene and Uzarigenin. Also, the suitable time for these pharmaceutical compounds accumulation in high concentrations was detected and we found that it was variable depending on compound types. Uzarigenin di glycoside concentration was significantly highly accumulated at midday before irrigation (M) but was the lowest at pre-dusk after irrigation (iPD). However, Uzarigenin accumulation was highly significant at all time except dawn before irrigation (D). Also, α-amyrene accumulation, - was highly significant at all time except dawn after irrigation (iD), as it was the lowest. Calotoxin1 was observed only at pre-dusk before irrigation (PD). Using bioinformatics tools and RNA-seq data, four genes related to pharmaceutical compound production in Calotropis plant were identified; flavonol oxygenase (accession no. KU997644 ( , oxysterol-binding protein (accession no. KX002269), calreticulin (accession no. KT943752) and amyrine synthase (accession no. KU997645). This study helps to determine the quality and quantity of some pharmaceutical compounds in Calotropis procera, as well as the appropriate time to isolate a huge quantity of these components.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 5-10 ]
DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.12.2

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Capripoxviruses of small ruminants: control and evaluating the future update efficacy of a current vaccine in Egypt

Eman B. Abd-Elfatah, Mamdouh F. El-Mekkawi and Emad A. Aboul-Soud

Abstract Sheeppox (SPP) and goatpox (GTP) diseases of sheep and goats known as Capripoxviral (CaPVs) diseases closely related to lumpy skin disease (LSD) of cattle, have an important role in agricultural economy. CaPVs diseases are not completely host specific, many of them show a clear host preference with more virulent in one of a two species. In Egypt where CaPVs diseases are enzootic, vaccination and bio-security are the only two control measures that targeted by an effective vaccination and limitation of animal movement and their products between different countries, in Egypt, CaPVs diseases controlled with a live attenuated tissue-culture SPP vaccine (Romanian strain) (RSPP vaccine) has been produced at Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute (VSVRI) because of the antigenic relationship in between. The current situation and the reoccurrence of the CaPVs diseases especially LSD in Egypt and inability of commercial RSPP vaccine to provide vaccinated animals with full protection so a trail of preparation and evaluation the trivalent vaccine (Romanian, Kenyan) SPP vaccine and GTP vaccine with equal volume and titre firstly in its specific and preferable host is a good idea to increase the immunization of a commercial Romanian SPP vaccine, thus it can be used to protect all CaPVs diseases. Conclusion: In Egypt where the CaPVs diseases are endemic, an efficient vaccine considered the main control measures to reduce the reoccurrence of the diseases, further preparation and field evaluation of safe and efficient trivalent CaPVs vaccine regarding on previous references was provided vaccinated animals with effective immunity than commercial RSPPV vaccine, beside the appropriate bio-security measures.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 11-16 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.12.3

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Performance of Kacang Goat Fattening Intensive Using Complit Feed with Different Levels of Liquid Smoke

Muhammad Hatta, Sud irman Baco, Syamsuddin Garantjang, Effendi Abustam

Abstract Kacang goat are native to Indonesia. The productivity of Kacang goats can be optimized if given a good enough feed and is available continuously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate carcass performance and carcass composition as well as Kacang goat. A total of 16 young male goats were divided into 4 treatments. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. The design used was a completely randomized design with 4 feed formulas as a treatment and each treatment was repeated 4 times. P1 is a liquid smokeless feed formula, P2 is a feed formula with 1% liquid smoke, P3 feed formula with 2% liquid smoke and P4 feed formula with 3% liquid smoke. Cattle are kept in individual cages given adlibitum complete feed and water according to treatment. After being kept for three months the next cut. The parameters measured were the percentage of carcass, commercial carcass pieces and carcass composition. Data analysis showed that livestock given complete feed containing 1% liquid smoke (P2) had the highest percentage of carcass and front carcass from other treatments but had the lowest percentage of non-carcass, while the highest rear carcass was P4. The highest cutting weight is P3 treatment. Leg commercial cuts and loin + tender loin entered in quality I were highest in treatment P3 while the lowest was P1. The highest cut of the neck quality II in P2 Rack treatment and the highest shoulder percentage is P1. Commercial cut of quality III are the highest breasts in treatment P3, the highest shank and flank on P1. The highest percentage of meat in treatment P4 and the lowest was treatment P1 while the highest fat percentage was in treatment P3 and the highest bone was P1. In conclusion, the higher the level of liquid smoke in complete feed, the higher the percentage of rear carcass and meat percentage. The provision of complete feed containing liquid smoke has a positive influence on increasing the percentage of carcass and increasing the percentage of commercial quality I.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 17-20 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.12.4

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Reduction of drought effect on peroxidase, catalase, chlorophyll content and yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) by proline and salicylic acid treatments

Abdulrahman Ali Alzandi

Abstract Drought is one of the serious abiotic environmental stresses affected the plant growth and yield. Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) growth and yield are drastically affected by drought stress. Proline and salicylic can alleviate the harmful effect of drought on many plants. The effect of proline and salicylic on drought examined on the broad bean. Pot experiment designed to investigate the effect of foliar treatment of proline and salicylic acid on broad bean growth and yield under drought stress conditions. Broad bean under three levels of field capacity (field condition, 25 % level of drought and 50 % level of drought) sprayed by proline or salicylic acid at vegetative and flowering stages. Water deficit decreased the relative water content, nitrogen content, potassium content, calcium content and chlorophyll content. In the same manner, yield parameters as pod number per plant, pod weight per plant, seed number per pod, seed number per plant, seed weight per one plant and weight of 100 seeds decreased under drought conditions. Plants treated with proline or salicylic acid showed an increasing in relative water content, nitrogen and potassium content, chlorophyll content, as well as all yield parameters under drought stress condition. Proline and salicylic acid increase the activity of peroxidase and catalase enzymes significantly uder drought condition. Results showed the ability of both proline and salicylic acid in mitigation the negative effect of drought stress on growth and yield of broad bean plant. Proline and salicylic acid improve the yield of broad bean plant at 25 % and 50 % levels of drought.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 21-27 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.12.5

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Potentiality of algae extracts in alleviating stresses effect on common bean under upper Egypt conditions

Noha Gamal Abu Setta, Hani Saber, Abu Bakr Abd El-Azim El-Dakkak and Hamdy Ramadan Galal

Abstract Two laboratory and field experiments were carried out during the two successive seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 at Qena Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena Governorate, Egypt, and Shandaweel Research Station, Agriculture Research Center, Sohag Governorate, Egypt to study the chemical constituents of some micro and macro algae and effect of foliar spray with their extracts on growth and productivity of common bean plants under abiotic stress, i.e., cold stress; nitrogen deficiency or drought stress. Laboratory experiments proved that all used algae excrete plant growth promoting substances such as indole acetic acid (IAA), Gibberellic acid (GA3) with excellence for Cystoseira myrica in (GA3), while cyanobacteria were superior in indole acetic acid (IAA) that led to an increasing in common bean plant traits as a result of foliar spraying with these extracts that increment most studied bean characteristics over the control beside decreasing of stressful effects during cold planting season. These confirm that algalization spray by most studied algae extracts made as growth regulators considerably alleviate all stressful conditions. Several parameters were evaluated including growth criteria, photosynthetic pigments, yield and its components. The deleterious effect of stress was mitigated with different extents by these treatments. The beneficial effect of treatments was manifested in terms of enhanced growth and photosynthesis. These results reveal that the 0.4 % of both Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena oryzae extracts can be considered the best extracts among the 8 algal extracts foliar spray treatments evaluated for all experimental conditions in the present work, i.e., cold, nitrogen deficiency or drought stresses. Moreover, both the (0.4 % Caulerpa racemosa) and (0.4 % Cystosiera myrica) extracts showed high positive responses only, in case of both cold and drought double stresses.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 28-37 ]
DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.12.6

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Nutrients Formulation for Improving Production and Quality of Potato Minitubers Using Aeroponic System in Indonesia

A. Muhibuddin, Zulkifli Razak, Suryawati Salam, Syamsia, and Jeferson Boling

Abstract One of effective strategies to speed up production of potato minitubers is tissue culture continuing with aeroponic system. This combination has several benefits, such as high productions, invulnerable to systemic plant diseases, independent on seasonal climates, and more continuous productions. The objective of this research was to determine the proper nutrients formulation on the aeroponic system for two different potato cultivars (atlantic and granola). This research used split plots design, the main plot was for potatoes (cultivar atlantic and granola), while the subplot was for nutrient formulation comprising four treatments: F1 = N (NO3- 125: NH4+ 25), P 20, K 100, Ca 75, Mg 50, S 25, Fe 2.0, Cu 0.1, Mo 0.05, Mn 0.5, Zn 0.1 and B 0.2 mg/l; F2 = N (NO3- 145:NH4+ 30), P 40, K 150, Ca 100, Mg 60, S 50, Fe 4.0, Cu 0.2, Mo 0.10, Mn 1.0, Zn 0.2 and B 0.4 mg/l ;F3 = N (NO3- 165: NH4+ 35), P 60, K 200, Ca 125, Mg 70, S 75, Fe 6.0, Cu 0.3, Mo 0.15, Mn 1.5, Zn 0.3 and B 0.6 mg/L; and F4 = N (NO3- 185:NH4+ 40), P 80, K 250, Ca 150, Mg 80, S 100, Fe 8.0, Cu 0.4, Mo 0.20, Mn 2.0, Zn 0.4 and B 0.8 mg/l. The results showed that treatment F4 gave better effects than treatment F1, however it did not show significant effect compared to treatment F2 and F3 on increasing production (number of tubers, tubers weight and tubers diameter) and quality (carbohydrate content of tubers, tubers hardness, and water content of tubers) for both cultivar atlantic and granola. Cultivar atlantic was better than cultivar granola on the parameter of tubers production and quality.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 38-42 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.12.7

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