AEB Volume 14, Number 8: August, 2020

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Response of application of liquid hyacinth and gamal leaf organic fertilizer to production and quality of Brachiaria brizantha

B. Iriyadi, S. Nompo, S. Hasan

Abstract Background: that liquid organic fertilizer could be a good alternative in replacing inorganic fertilizers. Meanwhile, the water hyacinth is a plant that has the potential to be used as the basic material in liquid organic fertilizer production. It is, therefore, necessary to study scientifically the effect of liquid organic fertilizer produced from water hyacinth to the production and the quality of Brachiaria brizantha. Objective: the object of this study are hyacinth and gala leaves as organic fertilizer as well as Brachiaria brizantha. Results: The results of the analysis of variance indicated that the effect of liquid organic fertilizer at a dosage of 0,10,20,30,40 ml/poly-bag on the production and the quality of Brachiaria brizantha was significant on the number of tillers and leaf chlorophyll. However, there was no significant effect on the plant height, leaf numbers, leaf area, fresh matter production and crude protein content. Conclusion: Based on the research, it can be concluded that the supplementation of liquid organic fertilizer indicated good response in terms of production and quality of Brachiaria brizantha. The supplementation of liquid organic fertilizer at the dosage of T4 is the best treatment. Although the results indicate no significant difference, the results consistently showed an increasing tendency.

[ FULL TEXT PFD 1-9 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.8.1

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Aquifer Parameters Estimation in Ekiti East Local Government Area, Southwestern Nigeria employing Data from Single Well Pumping Test Borehole

Talabi, A. Ojo, Popoola Kolawole, Afolagboye, L. Olatayo, Ojo, A. Amos, Ajisafe, Y. Christiana

Abstract Ekiti East Local Government Area Southwestern Nigeria suffered continual shortage of potable water arisen from lack of government pipe borne water and incessant boreholes failures. Therefore, this research was carried out with the objectives of estimating aquifer parameters (transmissivity, specific capacity and borehole yield) and classifying the study area into different groundwater potential zones. Siting of 35 boreholes locations was carried out using vertical electrical sounding geophysical technique. Boreholes were drilled in the 35 locations and pumping test was carried out in each of the borehole. Data from the thirty-five (35) boreholes were interpreted using Jacob straight line graphical simplification method which entailed plotting of time versus drawdown on a semi-log paper. A best straight line fit for the plot was subsequently drawn and extended to cut across the drawdown axis. Two points on a log-cycle apart in time were chosen and change in drawdown over that time interval was determined (ΔS). Yield (Q) was determined from the pumping volume per time i.e. volume /time. Transmissivity (T), specific capacity (Cs) were estimated using T= 2.3Q/4πΔS and Cs = Q/ΔS respectively. Parameters obtained from the interpretation of the pumping test were employed to generate the yield, transmissivity, specific capacity and groundwater potential maps respectively using Surfer 12 software. Subsequently, the transmissivity values were subjected to quantitative evaluation employing statistical method and transmissivity analysis. Results of the pumping test revealed that the boreholes yield ranged from 0.38 – 1.43 (av. 0.98) L/s, transmissivity from 0.007 – 0.095 (av. 0.034) m2/min and specific capacity from 0.038 – 0.52 (av. 0.183) m3/min/m. Statistical/Transmissivity analysis revealed that the standard deviation of the estimated transmissivity index , signified extreme large variations in transmissivity and heterogeneous environment with varied aquiferous conditions over a short lateral distance. Furthermore, the result indicated that 74% of the study area (mostly northern part) has groundwater occurrence that was good for local water supply while the remaining 26% in the southern part especially at Isinbode-Ekiti has groundwater potential that could serve for private consumption only. The groundwater potential map zoned the area into good, fair and poor groundwater potential zones. The good groundwater potential zone is in the north central and north-eastern part of the study area. Groundwater in the study area is suitable for local water supply except at Isinbode-Ekiti where it could only serve for private consumption. This study, apart from providing a frame work for groundwater resources development in the area, it serves a guide to other researchers and intending boreholes drillers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 10-22 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.8.2

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The effect of fermented and autoclaved castor seed meal on performance, tissue composition and haematology of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

Babalola T.O., Salami M., Olasunkanmi J.B. and Jimoh J.O.

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal with fermented and autoclaved castor seed meal on growth performance, carcass quality and haematological parameters of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. 150 Clarias gariepinus fingerlings with initial body weight 5.61 ± 0.03 were used in this study. The fish were equally distributed over 15 aquaria (120 l each, triplicate per treatment). Fermented and autoclaved castor seed meal (FACSM) was prepared by soaking de-oiled seed in water to allow natural fermentation for five days, dried and autoclaved at 15psi pressure and temperature of 1200C for 30 minutes. The resulting cake was incorporated into five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. The diets consisted of five levels of soybean meal substituted with FACSM. The control diet (FACSM0) contain no FACSM, in the other four diets soybean meal was partly replaced with FACSM resulting in the FACSM50, FACSM100, FACSM150 and FACSM200 diets. At the end of the study, no significant differences were observed in the growth performance of fish fed the control diet and fish fed diets containing FACSM up to 100 gkg-1 (diet FACSM100). The carcass quality of the fish indicated that fish fed diet FACSM50 was as good as the fish fed the control diet. The fish health status based on the haematological parameters measured, was not affected by the incorporation of FACSM in the diet up to 50 gkg-1 (FACSM50). The use of fermentation with 30 minutes autoclaving of castor seed meal led to improvement of growth, carcass quality and haematology of C. gariepinus fingerlings. Therefore, the inclusion of FACSM in the diets of C. gariepinus at 50 gkg-1 (diet FACSM50) is recommended because it improved growth performance, carcass quality and fish health status.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 23-28 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.8.3

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Composition of macroplastic waste type in Ternate island ocean, Indonesia

Mimien Henie Irawati Al Muhdhar, I Wayan Sumberartha, Zainudin Bin Hassan, Muhammad Shalahuddin Rahmansyah, M. Nasir Tamalene, Bahtiar, Rahayu Faradia

Abstract Background: The number of plastic waste thrown into the ocean is increasing due to community activities. Most of the light plastic waste is carried away by rain water flow, current and wind and result in wide spread in the ocean and coastal areas of Ternate Island, Indonesia. Objective: This research aims to review the available quantitative data on plastic waste floating on the Ternate Island waters. Method: Explorative survey method was used to directly collect types of macroplastic waste. Results: The research results indicate that there are 8 (eight) types of plastic waste found in Ternate City. The dominant type of the plastic waste in Ternate Island ocean include plastic packaging with composition percentage value of 31.80%, plastic glass of 29.61%, plastic bottle of 22.06%, plastic bag of 7.55%, plastic straw of 3.77%, plastic spoon of 2.50%, kid toys of 2.33% and plastic strap of 0.37%. The important findings become a base for the Ternate municipal government on the need to increase citizen involvement in reducing the use of plastic in a responsible way, cleaning the environment and planning regional regulations on plastic wastes and its use. Conclusion: There were many plastic wastes were found in the coastal areas, suburbs and downtown that stranded in the beach basin areas. Plastic remnants could be found floating on the water, stranded in the beach, and drowned on the seabed. Plastic waste such as plastic bags and plastic packaging were the dominant type. The main source of plastic waste was community activities in downtown, harbor, inter-island ships and tourism.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 29-36 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.8.4

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Occurrence of new phtyoplasma disease on date palm in Jordan

Abeer Abu Shirbi, Ibtihal Abu Obeid, Jihad Haddadin, Hani Ghnaim, Ruba Al Omari and Khalid Alhudaib

Abstract Typical symptoms of phytoplasma infection were observed on several date palm orchards symptoms including mild leaf stunting, yellow streaking and a reduction in fruit and stalk size. To identify the phytoplasmas in these trees, 262 leaf samples from infected and asymptomatic plants were collected from different date palm cultivars, herbaceous plants growing under trees and different possible hosts growing in the orchards in addition to leafhoppers. Total DNA was extracted from all samples using phytoplasma generic primers P1/P7-R16F2n/R2. Sequencing of representative PCR product was done, and BLAST analysis of the isolates revealed over than 98% similarity with different reference Candidatus Phytoplasma strains deposited in the Genbank and it shows 96-98% similarities with Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi strain. So far this is the first report of phytoplasma disease, detected and identified in Jordan on date palm. Key words: Phoenix dactylifera, Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi, date palm, phytoplasma, 16SrI DNA, Jordan

[ FULL TEXT PDF 37-44 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.8.5

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Margin Analysis and Efficiency of Seaweed Agribusiness Marketing in MA'RANG District, Pangkep Regency

Aziza Noor Sheha Arfah, Sitti Bulkis, Adri Arief, Ahmad Ramdhan Siregar, Rahim Darma, Hatta Jamil

Abstract Potential algae breeding activities have been used by farmers, particularly in the Ma'rang district, in the Pangkep regency. Algae cultivation has become the main livelihood for people living in the coastal areas of the Ma'rang district in the Pangkep regency. This research aims to; 1) Analyze the shape of the algae agri-food marketing channels in the Ma'rang district, Ma'rang Regency; 2) Analyzing the marketing margins of the algae agri-food sector in the district of Ma'rang, Ma'rang Regency; 3) Analyze the efficiency of the marketing of the algae agri-food industry in the district of Ma'rang, Ma'rang Regency. The analytical method used is; 1) the first objective is the shape of the algae marketing channels, qualitative analysis is used; 2) the second objective, or the algae marketing margins, is used quantitative analysis; 3) the third objective, marketing efficiency, quantitative analysis is used. Based on the results of the study it showed that marketing channels in the Ma'rang district, Pangkep Regency use a form of marketing channels, i.e. directly to operators. The results of the analysis show that the value of the marketing margins in the algae marketing channels in the Ma'rang district, Pangkep Regency is IDR. 5,152.94. A marketing efficiency value of 0.77% indicates that the direct marketing channel is said to be effective.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 45-49 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.8.6

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Biochemical Monitoring of Toxic-Carcinogenic Organic Pollutions: CYP450 in Carp Fish In Different Lakes

Hatice Banu Keskinkaya, Cengiz Akköz , Numan Emre Gümüş, Serdar Karakurt

Abstract Background: Living organisms in the aquatic environment environmental waste/chemicals they are exposed to various molecules. Too much toxic chemical is a very important threat to the health of organisms living in the sea and to the consumer of these organisms, Therefore, it is very important to identify the relationship between the pollutant level (exposure) and its biological effects before any harmful effects are generated at the higher organization level. Objective: This study was carried out to clarify the possible effects of pollution in Beyşehir and Çavuşçu Lakes on the activities of CYP450 enzymes that perform detoxification and metabolic activation of environmental toxins, environmental agents containing mutagen and carcinogens. We aimed at this study to investigate the effect of toxic and carcinogenic organic pollutions of lake carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.,1758) in Beysehır and Cavuscu Lakes. In this way, CYP450 enzymes have been used as a biological indicator to determine the presence of organic pollutants. Hepatic cytochrome CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities of induction with organic pollutants assets in determining early warning signal task, making it the most sensitive biological indicators were be used in fish. In 2014 and 2015 samples of carp were brought from the designated localities and their CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 activities were measured with ELISA by spectrophotometric method. Results: CYP2E1 activity was found as 101,5±9.661, 98,17±1.124 (n=6) pmol/min/mg in Cavuscu and Beysehır lake carp samples, respectively. Both ın the lake, the effect of CYP2E1 activity, there was no significant difference however, CYP3A4 activity was determined as p=0.0073, and the difference between the two lakes was statistically significant. (p<0.05) Fe was found to be higher in liver samples (255,82 mg/kg) in Beyşehir lake than in the Çavuşçu Lake (61,91 mg/kg). Cd and Co levels are below the detection limit in the examples in Çavuşçu Lake and also Cr levels were determined as 0.14 mg/kg and no significant difference was observed between the levels in the samples in Beyşehir Lake. Mn levels were measured at similar rates in the samples in Beyşehir and Çavuşçu Lake (1.15 mg/kg, 1.17 mg/kg, respectively) Conclusion: According to these results, it is thought that pollutants can pass to humans through the consumption of fish in the aquatic environment or the food chain. Exposure to organic pollutants including environmental toxicants and exposure to these chemicals is thought to increase the likelihood of clinical toxicity and is known to be a carcinogen. Besides, it is considered that the concentration of pollutants, aquatic organisms, and human beings are the other important issues to be investigated.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 50-58 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2020.14.8.7

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 
© 2007, AENSI Publications