AEB Volume 13, Number 8: August, 2019

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Step-by-step design and calculations for water treatment plant units

Shuokr Qarani Aziz, Jwan Sabah Mustafa

Abstract: This work presented the design steps and calculation for each unit of the water treatment plant (WTP), due to its crucial role domestically and drinking purpose. It also illustrated and designed the procedures of the water processing units by estimating water demand and designing the unit process. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the water demand for a certain community and to present design steps and calculations for the required units of a WTP. The design of the WTP units was applied to Greater-Zab River water for the selected location in Erbil City-Iraq. The quality and quantity of the Greater-Zab River water at various times were statistically analyzed and presented. The units of the treatment processes involved intake, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, adsorption (optional), filtration, disinfection, storage, and pumping. The calculations and detailed drawings of the units were displayed, the average discharge and population used for the WTP design were 60,000 m3/day and 200,000, respectively. Besides, the calculation required some of the parameters to be estimated as field data, which were taken into consideration. The outline results of each unit of the WTP were tabulated. It can be concluded that this work can be used as a source for designing other WTP units. A number of factors such as the age of WTP, maintenance, economical and political situations, technical problems, and water demand had a great impact on the removal efficiency of the WTP units.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-16 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.8.1

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Molecular identification of Insect species and their applications

Naser Alkenani and Habeeb M. Al-Solami

Abstract: Successfully this emergency solution to solve a method species that belong to the scientific fields related to the design or emergent classification crisis. Difficulties in identifying more researchers, based on recent developments in sequencing and computational techniques, DNA sequences have become a new source of important information that informs our understanding of evolutionary and genetic relationships. Therefore, the analysis of the series of fingerprints of synergy becomes clear and almost all fields in the field of biology and the most important effect they produce. Although there are many arguments. DNA attention, the usefulness of barcodes, but stakeholders, stated that these efforts should be coordinated and complemented with the specific molecular and morphological characteristics of the species studied in the integrated classification. I think it should not use as a global identification system. DNA Barcodes are welcome and introduced, and the difficulty becomes a key factor in distinguishing closely related species at specific branch levels. Finally, it has done barcodes should have considerable potential for the discovery and classification of spider fauna. DNA barcode this is also an effective and logical way to solve identification problems at the species level, which contribute significantly to taxonomy and biodiversity. The aim of this a review focus on the molecular identification of spider fauna and their applications.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 17-24 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.8.2

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Genetics analysis and management of mosquito control Habeeb M. Al-Solami

Abstract: The modern and associated multiplication of mosquitoes around the world, based on ecological and anthropological characteristics and fed by diseases derived from mosquitoes, is costly for applicability to a public space. It becomes a proposition. The debilitating diseases of man and, worse still, the victims and death, make it an urgent priority in this complex trial. WHO four astronomical malaria-infected by many mosquitoes, dengue fever and attention to yellow fever drew from all over the world, the association of public participation and its ambitious efforts are the main factors in reducing mosquito problems, all voters in the community and all citizens should participate in the fight program to strengthen public education by simulating the leverage needed to achieve positive results. In terms of water management programs, Saudi Arabia is not the place to fight mosquitoes because of its geographical location, weather conditions and the amount of water exposed in the center. commercial. Due to the increase in the mosquito population. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the amount of genetic diversity that exists among them for use in the management of mosquito lineage and mosquito control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 25-29 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.8.3

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Preparation of a biosorbent complex (clay particles/Streptococcus thermophilus) to treat polluted water with methylene blue

Hadj Said Aissa, Moulay Meriem, Benbeguara Mourad, Hocine Laredj

Abstract: The research and/or development of new materials, already available and inexpensive, seems interesting, as they will be able to trap water pollutants, in particular dyes that can cause serious harm to the environment. The objective of this study is to develop a complex biosorbent based on the immobilization of Streptococcus thermophilus on suspended clay particles of Maghnia for the purpose of treating water artificially polluted with methylene blue at low concentrations (≤ 20 mg/L) under the experimental conditions of neutral pH and an ambient temperature of about 20°C. The purity of the microbial strain was verified by macroscopic and microscopic controls with Gram coloration, while the purification of the natural clay of Maghnia was made by sedimentation. The results obtained show that the microbial strain grown on M17 agar gives round colonies with cremated white color and small sizes, it is Gram(+), catalase (-) and homo-fermenter. The purification of suspended clay particles by sedimentation, the Stokes Law has made it possible to verify that they are less than 2 μm in size. Regarding the biosorption of methylene blue by the biosorbent complex, the results show a rapid removal of the dye, it attains equilibrium after 20 minutes of contact. After on hour the elimination rate varies between 88 and 96% depending on the initial concentration. The application of kinetic models shows a good correlation between experimental data and those results calculated by the Ho and Mc Kay model whereas the results of Weber and Morris indicate the existence of the formation of a limit layer of the dye on the surface of the biosorbent. As for the equilibrium isothermal models Henry’s notes reveal that the concentrations applied in methylene blue are low while the Freundlich model indicates a biosorption of the dye in the form of a poly-layer. .

[ FULL TEXT PDF 30-38 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2019.13.8.4

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