AEB Volume 12, Number 4: April, 2018

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Contribution about the environment of El-Bayadh region in the southern-west of Algeria

Djeldjeli Abdelhadi, Setti Mhamed and Amirech Louiza

Abstract This study is made for the purpose of giving an idea about the biotic components of a steppe zone characterized by a specific richness, the bibliographical synthesis revealed a special floristic wealth is found under three types of landscapes; rocky plateaus with herbaceous vegetation. The second is a shrub steppe and the third is the forest. Despite the scarcity of plants, the plants in the region are specific. The fauna of the region is characterized by a large diversity. In 108 vertebrate species, two birds and four mammals are at risk (Houbara bustard and the bald Ibis.) and (The Dorcas Gazelle, the dune gazelle, the Atlas Goundi and the Fennec are endangered. At the end of this study, it appears that the degradation of the steppe environment has forced migration to the city of El Bhayed as a solution.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-5 ] DOI : 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.4.1

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Clinical Mastitis in Sheep Small Holder System in Sharkia Province: Bacteriological Studies, In Vitro Antibiogram Profile and Mineral Picture

Hend M. El Damaty and ElShaima M. Fawzi

Abstract Mastitis is one amongst the foremost common health issues that have economically influence on sheep production in Egypt. Intramammary infections (IMIs) of dairy ewes with bacterial pathogens represent as one of most important causes of the ewes milk-drop syndrome. Failures of treatment the clinical cases are attributed mostly to the antimicrobial resistance of these pathogens. This study is perform to throw the light about the major bacterial pathogens implicated as reasons for clinical mastitis in ewes. Further, in vitro antibiogram profile of the identified pathogens was set up, additionally measurment of minerals thought to be distrubted during clinical mastitis. Here in eighty hand milked clinically mastitic lactating ewes from different villages in Sharkia province, Egypt, were clinically and bacteriologically studied during the period from March till the end of Decembre 2017. Fourteen distinctive antibiotics were used to assessed the sensitivity and resistance pattern of each isolates. Out of the 160 udder halves that subjected to bacteriological culture, 15 halves were bacerilogically negative and the most frequent isolates had been obtained from 145 halves were Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) (47.5%), Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (13.7%), E.coli (11.9%), Corynebacterium spp. (8.1%), Streptococcus agalactiae (Str. agalactiae) (6.9%) and Str. uberis (2.5%). Most gross changes of clinically examined mastitic ewes varies from hottness and swelling in acute cases to induration and fibrosis of one or more halves in chronic cases with 8.7% of the clinically affected glands were reach to gangarenous stage. Statistically there are significant variations between antibiotics treatment at (P≤0.05). Significantly decreased of serum calcium, sodium, chloride, potasium and phosphorus levels in clinically mastitic ewes in comparsion with apparently healthy either with or without history of recent lambing except of calcium was decline in level than apparently healthy ewes with history of recent lambing but not significantly. On other hand, magnesium and zinc were not correlated with clinical mastitis in ewes in this study. From this investigation we concluded that S.aureus implicated as a most causitive agents of clinical ovine mastitis. Highly sensitivity of gentamycin (98.94 %) folloewd by ciprofloxacin (91.85%) as effective drugs for used in treatment trials to most of isolated bacerial strains in this study and also recomended to constrain the use of pencillin in the future due to highly resistance (87.38%) recorded against it. Furthermore, the supplements of these elements (calcium, sodium, chloride, potasium and phosphorus) to the ration may be decrease the incidence of mastitis or using these elements alongwith specific drugs may be helpful in rapid restore of normal udder condition and milk balance.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 6-11 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.4.2

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Harmful Algal Blooms, Cause, Purpose and Solution from the Qur’anic Viewpoint and Marine Science: An Environmental Discourse

Md. Sirajul Islam Sofiah Bt. Samsudin

Abstract Currently almost every seaside country in the world is affected by Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), commonly called “red tides”. This diverse array of phenomena includes blooms of toxic, microscopic algae that lead to illness and death in humans, fish, seabirds, marine mammals and other oceanic life forms. There are also non-toxic HABs that cause damage to ecosystems, fisheries resources and recreational facilities. It is responsible for economic losses in coastal states. The aim of this study is analyze what is the HABs from the Qur’anic viewpoint and modern marine science as well as detect why appears such a disaster in costal and what is its solve from the Qur’anic standpoint. As a result, the study found that the Holy Qur’an has mentioned (al-fasad) disasters to refer to numerous kinds of calamities, contaminations and pollutions in sea including the HABs. Also, it included historical, current and whatever new form of disaster will appear in future both in land and sea. As a cause for the HABs the study found Almighty Allah mentioned cause and 2 purposes for HABs in the sea: HABs are reaction of humans’ wrongdoing; HABs are to give punishment the Humans for their immoral actions; HABs are to return to the right way. Similarly, it found integration between the Qur’anic viewpoint and modern marine science in HABs that “Humans’ activities profoundly affect the amount of fresh water which reaches the coast, and this can enhance HABs”.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 12-19 ] DOI: 10.22587/aeb.2018.12.4.3

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